During pregnancy, moms come across different new concepts and terms. Among them is the term "screening", which appears in the women's lexicon as early as the first trimester. By this term we mean tests on which it is possible to judge various deviations of hormones in the bearing of a child. In the first trimester screening, tests and tests are performed to help assess the health of the mother and fetus, and its development. Perinatal screening reveals all sorts of pathologies, namely: Down's syndrome and Edwards syndrome, heart defects and neural tube development.
The first trimester screening begins, as a rule, with a general examination. This is the period from 11 to 13 weeks of pregnancy. The doctor, having thoroughly studied the medical history, conducts a full examination and receives all the necessary information. During this period, a general analysis of blood and urine is conducted, an analysis is made for hepatitis, syphilis and HIV, the blood group and, of course, the Rh factor are tested.At this stage, screening also includes genetic testing, which allows to find out whether the couple have genetic diseases. Among the various tests are tests for sickle cell anemia, cystic fibrosis, Tay-Sachs disease, thalassemia. The doctor conducts explanatory discussions with the pregnant woman, where he raises questions of the benefits and risks of genetic testing and general screening, the use of tests for the fetus. Usually between 10 and 13 weeks, a chorion biopsy is performed, the purpose of which is to identify chromosomal abnormalities and genetic disorders. During this period, ultrasound is screened, which helps to assess the size of the fetus, determine the age and location of it in the uterus. Using ultrasound, it is possible to establish the cause of vaginal bleeding.
The second semester is screened between 15 and 20 weeks of the term. Doctors during this period recommend doing 4 blood tests from a single sample. These tests help detect chromosomal abnormalities, various lesions on the fetal body, abdominal cavity and spine.What is especially noteworthy is that screening for this particular period can predict a 80% risk of having a child with Down's syndrome. Note that screening is not necessary for a pregnant woman, but experience shows that anxiety for the future of your child forces him to spend it in the first and second trimester. They also explain their decision by the fact that they want to move quickly to amniocentesis. The second trimester of pregnancy measures the level of estriol produced during pregnancy by the placenta. Insufficient development of it affects the development of the baby. Alpha-fetoprotein is a specific protein produced during pregnancy. If a child develops a child, the level in the blood of the AFP also changes, he either rises or falls. About Down's syndrome may indicate its increase, and the death of the fetus can lead to a sharp increase. We note that some chromosomal abnormalities, like Down's syndrome, are not treatable, but nevertheless screening of the second trimester allows revealing anomalies that can be treated and the probability of detection is 80%. Among such anomalies: splitting of vertebral arches, neural tube defects. The ultrasound confirms the revealed defects and the decision on carrying out cesarean section is made to exclude traumas of a backbone. In addition, after the birth, the splitting of the vertebral arches is closed. There is also a screening for the third trimester of pregnancy. It includes such examinations as ultrasound, cardiotocography, Dolleometry.
Among the screening is biochemical - blood tests, which at the initial stage can reveal signs of hepatitis B or rubella, find out how dangerous it is for the fetus. Biochemical screening includes tests for syphilis and HIV, for some STDs, since these diseases pose a threat to the baby.The doctor, when biochemical screening, determines the type of woman's blood, also determines the level of hormones. A blood test will identify the risk of developing gestational diabetes. Urinalysis is also performed with biochemical screening. With this analysis, the level of sugar and protein in the urine is determined. Note that screening carries some danger, as it requires intervention in the functioning of the body. The greatest danger and fear of a woman is the risk of fetal loss, which increases with prenatal procedures. When carrying out similar procedures - the risk of a probability of miscarriage about 1 to 100. Do not panic, having on hand the results of screening, if one of the results is not normal. The doctor makes the general conclusion at a complex estimation. Moreover, there is always an opportunity to visit a geneticist. Screening, as a rule, indicates a problem that needs to be solved.