Causes and risk factors for premature discharge of amniotic fluid
Premature outpouring of amniotic fluid is a common problem that can be dangerous for the mother and child. Why is it so important for a baby to be in a liquid medium and in a single amniotic fluid? Let's talk on this topic.
Throughout pregnancy, the fetus swims in the amniotic fluid that fills the fetal bladder. It performs a large set of functions. The amniotic fluid participates in the metabolism of the baby, protects it from external influences (mechanical, sound, light) and various infectious diseases. In addition, it is used to train the digestive and respiratory systems of the child. Amniotic fluid is constantly updated. Its quantity can also tell about the state of the fetus inside the womb.
Outflow of amniotic fluid normally occurs during the birth process. When the cervix matures, fetal membranes soften, and enzymes are released that promote the separation of the placenta. The fetal bladder loses elasticity and strength and bursts. The amniotic fluid flows outward. After the amniotic fluid flows, contractions usually intensify.
If the fetal bladder loses integrity until the fruit ripens and it is ready for natural delivery, then it is said about the premature rupture of the fetus. The degree of threat to the mother and child is estimated depending on the period of pregnancy. The main risks are due to premature birth and infection of both the fetus and the pregnant.
The causes of premature discharge of amniotic fluid are numerous. The most common is infection of the genital organs of a pregnant woman. At the same time, the cervix softens before the due date, and the excreted enzymes thin the fetal bladder, lead to the separation of the placenta. In this case, most likely and infection of the baby.
To PRE (premature rupture of fetal membranes) can lead and features of the structure of the pelvis, the state of the cervix, the position of the fetus. A weak neck creates conditions for bulging out the bladder and breaking its integrity. A narrow pelvis and an unusual position of the fetus create a threatening state when most of the water accumulates at the bottom of the bladder and tears it. Normally, the fruit tightly abuts the pelvic floor and creates a contact belt that does not allow the bulk of water to flow to the bottom of the bladder.
Medical intervention associated with a puncture of the bladder for the analysis of the fluid can provoke further disruption of integrity. Anomalies of the uterus, such as the presence of a septum, placental abruption, polyhydramnios, as well as multiple pregnancies are risk factors. Provoke premature discharge of amniotic fluid in full term pregnancy can be physical activity, with premature blunt abdominal trauma and bad habits of the mother associated with the use of alcohol and nicotine, narcotic substances. Negative impact can and the reception of some potent medicines.
It is quite easy to detect the symptoms of the outflow of amniotic fluid. In this process a fairly large amount of liquid is allocated, so that it can be confused with something else. The waters are normally colorless and have a slightly sweet smell. It is more difficult to determine the presence of cracks in the shell. In fact then the amniotic fluid follows on a droplet and it is easily accepted for vaginal discharge. Another premature discharge of amniotic fluid features as an increase in the number of secretions in the prone position.
If there is a suspicion of leakage of the amniotic fluid, tests are prescribed - a smear on pH, ultrasound. Can offer amniocentesis with tinting or some other techniques. The Amnishur test proved to be very successful. After establishing the fact of violation of the integrity of the shell, a decision is made on further actions depending on the duration of pregnancy and the presence of complications.
Doctors, depending on the timing of premature discharge of amniotic fluid, suggest various ways to reduce the risks of complications. If the pregnancy is full, then the birth will usually occur on its own within the next two days. In this case, the woman is placed in a hospital and is under observation. Rehabilitation of the genital tract is performed in order to avoid infection, the birth canal is prepared. The decision to wait for natural births reduces the risk of birth injuries and other negative consequences.
At terms of up to 22 weeks, PREV is usually an indication for abortion due to too high risks of complications of infection of the fetus and the mother. If the pregnancy has exceeded the specified period, many factors are taken into account. The more the baby has developed, the better the prognosis. The main indicator of the birth of a viable child is the maturation of his lungs. For this, the woman is placed in practically sterile conditions. Provide bed rest and prevention with antibiotics. Everything is done to preserve the life and health of mother and baby.