Polyhydramnios: causes and consequences
The causes of polyhydramnios during pregnancy are not as diverse as the consequences that this condition can cause. Polyhydramnios name pathology that occurs during pregnancy. With it, there is an excess volume of amniotic fluid (more than 1.5 liters). This is a fairly frequent diagnosis, which doctors can deliver on various terms of pregnancy. The causes of polyhydramnios and its consequences for the child are well known to physicians.
Amniotic fluid performs a lot of functions, among which:
- protection against noise and mechanical damage;
- prevention of pinching of the umbilical cord;
- reduction of pain during contractions;
- liberation from exchange products.
The amount of fluid in the amniotic fluid is constantly changing. So, in the first months of their pregnancy 30 ml, the greatest amount of water is usually observed in 38 weeks and averages 1-1,5 l, and at 39 weeks their volume begins to decline.
Polyhydramnios in pregnant women can have such causes: diabetes, various infectious diseases, rhesus-conflict in the mother with the child, diseases of the cardiovascular system and kidneys, sugar or gestational diabetes. The cause of moderate polyhydramnios often becomes a multiple pregnancy.
There are two types of this pathology: acute and chronic. In acute form, there is a rapid increase in the amount of amniotic fluid. The consequences of this development of events are sad - the fetus either dies as a result of placental abruption (or any other complication), or is born very weak. Chronic form of polyhydramnios differs slowly in increasing amniotic fluid, which makes it possible to control the process.
The main signs of polyhydramnios are the appearance of soreness and heaviness in the abdomen and lower back, swelling, shortness of breath, due to the squeezing of the diaphragm in the uterus, the appearance of a multitude of striae on the skin of the abdomen. To establish an accurate diagnosis, the pregnant woman is sent to the ultrasound.
Polyhydramnium negatively affects the condition of the pregnant woman and her fetus. It can lead to such complications in pregnancy, as an incorrect position of the fetus in the uterus, hooking it with the umbilical cord, premature and prolonged delivery. Other consequences of polyhydramnios during pregnancy depend on the cause of this pathology. If, for example, it is an intrauterine infection, the child will be born weak and may die.
Treatment is prescribed only after the woman has been given all the necessary tests and ultrasound examination. When the infection is detected, the safest antibiotics are prescribed. With diabetes, Rh-conflict and other diseases and conditions, appropriate treatment is recommended. In case of ineffectiveness of the prescribed treatment and a long pregnancy period, preterm delivery is recommended.