Acute and chronic fetal hypoxia
Intrauterine hypoxia of the fetus is a pathology in which an unborn child lacks oxygen in the womb. Let's talk about the signs of hypoxia, its types, methods of diagnosis and consequences.
Types of hypoxia, its causes and consequences
Lack of oxygen can be chronic and acute. The first is more common and is more favorable for the mother and child. Symptoms of fetal hypoxia are chronic - these are various pathologies of pregnancy and mother's diseases that can provoke a regular lack of oxygen. These are diseases of the respiratory system (for example, bronchial asthma), smoking, fetoplacental insufficiency, when enough blood and nutrients do not enter the bloodstream through the placenta, iron deficiency anemia. If ultrasound is delayed intrauterine development in 2 weeks or more, there is every reason to diagnose chronic fetal hypoxia and offer treatment in the hospital. In the hospital, a preventive treatment is usually done to relieve the tone of the uterus (which should benefit the uteroplacental blood circulation), in some cases, drugs that reduce blood density, etc. This helps to improve the situation with oxygen exchange somewhat. If a woman smokes, she is recommended to leave this bad habit. If the fetal hypoxia is due to a chronic illness of the mother, it is treated with drugs safe for pregnant women. It is very important to provide the future mother with a calm environment, the correct regime of the day. It will not be superfluous to have a sanatorium treatment.
It is much more dangerous acute fetal hypoxia, when a child can die in a few minutes. This pathology can occur at any time of pregnancy and during childbirth. The cause may be a tight multiple cord entanglement, umbilical cord nodes, rupture of the uterus, placental abruption, etc. If an acute shortage of oxygen is diagnosed, a woman undergoes an emergency cesarean section. In such cases, every minute is expensive, since prolonged hypoxia in newborns leads to the death of brain cells.
A more favorable outcome, as a rule, has a prolonged hypoxia. But because of a lack of oxygen and nutrients, a child can develop slowly and even at the time of delivery, it can not be viable in natural conditions. Such weak children are nursed in cuvies, using modern medical equipment.
Diagnosis of fetal oxygen starvation
If the diagnosis of acute oxygen deficiency usually does not cause problems, then chronic can be a long time not to suspect, especially if a woman does not often visit a gynecologist and does not undergo ultrasound at the recommended time.
To find out whether the child has enough oxygen, whether blood flow is possible in 3 ways.
1. When the doctor listens with the help of a midwife stethoscope, the child's heartbeat through the wall of the uterus. The doctor pays attention to the heart rate. If it is below the norm it is a sign of pathology.
2. You can more accurately follow the heart rhythm with the help of CTG. It is something like an electrocardiogram, but only on it the palpitation of a fetus is investigated.
3. Using dopplerography. It is also performed as usual ultrasound. The blood flow in uterine arteries is investigated.
In addition, the woman herself must monitor the state of her child. This is quite easy to do from the moment you begin to feel a stir. For a day the kid should move at least 10 times. Moreover, an increase in the number of perturbations is a less dangerous symptom than a decrease. The child can move more actively if the woman takes an awkward posture, can thus react to bright light, etc. And less children move usually because of a lack of oxygen.
In order to notice the pathology in time or to make sure of the well-being of the child, it is necessary to take all tests and undergo examinations at the recommended time. Remember that intrauterine fetal hypoxia effects can be quite severe. But in most cases it can be prevented.