During pregnancy, doctors carefully monitor the health of both the future mother and baby. What kind of examinations are mandatory and in what time periods do they need to pass? I see you
The first time ultrasound is done during the first treatment of a woman to the doctor immediately after she finds out the joyful news. In the early stages (5-6 weeks), the main goal of the study is to determine whether it is a pregnancy or an ectopic pregnancy.
Next time, compulsory ultrasound is carried out for a period of 10 to 13 weeks. If a woman finds out that she is pregnant during this period of time, then the second planned examination becomes the first in a row. This time we are talking about ultrasound screening - a study that allows you to identify the risk of developing malformations in a baby. At this stage, you can identify 2 congenital chromosomal diseases - Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome. During the next 7 days, and ideally on the same day for the accuracy of the results, the expectant mother should undergo biochemical screening, the so-called "double test". To do this, you will need to donate blood from the vein.
If the results of these two studies reveal a high risk of malformations in the child, the doctor will recommend invasive prenatal diagnosis to analyze the chromosomal set of the child and clarify the diagnosis.3D and 4D ultrasound are much more informative than a two-dimensional scan: thanks to these modern methods, doctors are easier to consider violations of the internal organs in the baby.
The second ultrasound screening is for the 20-22nd week. Its results are also summarized with the results of biochemical screening (this time it is called the "triple test": in addition to the syndromes of Down and Edwards, it allows us to detect a third chromosomal disorder - a neural tube defect that is done for a period of 16 to 21 weeks.
The last planned ultrasound is performed at the 32nd week. It is also aimed at detecting possible vices, which at earlier times could not be identified because the baby was still too small.
During ultrasound, doctors evaluate a wide variety of parameters that must be met at a given time of pregnancy: assess the size of the uterus and the baby, the tone of the myometrium, the degree of maturation of the placenta, and the amount of amniotic fluid. Analyze the structure of the internal organs of the baby, the position of the umbilical cord. Abnormalities can indicate a threat of abortion, problems with bearing, possible complications during and after childbirth.Speed test
This method of ultrasound diagnostics makes it possible to find out whether the baby is fed from the mother of nutrients and oxygen or not. To do this, during the examination, doctors evaluate the features of the blood flow in the uterine artery, the cord and the middle cerebral artery of the child. Having ascertained, at what speed blood flows through the vessels, it can be concluded how quickly and in what quantities nutrients and oxygen come to the baby and whether these figures correspond to the term of pregnancy.
The study is conducted in 2 stages. First, each doctor searches for each of the three arteries using an ultrasound machine. When her image appears on the screen, the doctor turns on a special sensor (Doppler), which measures the speed of the blood flow, its pressure and the resistance of the vessel.
Depending on what violations of blood flow revealed Doppler, you can assume what complications arise during pregnancy. So, if the baby does not have enough nutrients, he can be born small, and when he does not get enough oxygen, he develops hypoxia.
According to the doctor's testimony, for example, if there were complications during previous pregnancies, doppler can be performed from the 13th week. In wide practice and without fail this examination is prescribed for every pregnant woman in the period from the 22nd to the 24th week. If the doctor identifies the violations, he will appoint a second study.Heartbeat
The study consists in evaluating two parameters - the frequency of the baby's heart rate and the state of the uterine tone. They measure 2 sensors, which are attached to the future mother on the stomach. The third one is in her hand, pressing the button every time the baby moves. The essence of the method is to analyze the change in the child's heartbeat in response to his own body movements. The goal is to find out if enough oxygen is supplied to the child.
How does this method work? When we move, our heart rate increases. This phenomenon is called a cardiac reflex, which is formed during intrauterine development, usually by the 30th week of pregnancy. If we do not have enough oxygen, the heart rate will increase more than usual and the number of beats per minute will exceed the norm. The same changes can be traced to the baby. However, if he experiences oxygen starvation for a long time, his body will behave differently. Saving the strength, the baby will move less, and in response to movement, his pulse will not accelerate, but, conversely, slow down. However, in both cases, the diagnosis is one: hypoxia of the fetus, only to varying degrees.In some medical centers, the CTG apparatus can be hired and carried out at home, sending results via video communication to a doctor who will monitor the situation remotely.
As a rule, during pregnancy, the second sensor, evaluating the tone of the uterus, is rarely used. But during childbirth, it is indispensable, because it shows how often the fights occur, what is their strength and duration. If they are weak, special preparations will be needed to strengthen them. Watching the changes in the baby's heartbeat, doctors can notice a number of other complications in time. So, if they notice that the child does not have enough oxygen, perhaps he will not be able to withstand natural births, and then he will have to do a cesarean section.
CTG needs to be done at least once, at the 34th week. However, many obstetrician-gynecologists advise all women to undergo this study at a frequency of 10-14 days from the 30th week, as soon as the baby develops a cardiac reflex. The earlier the baby is diagnosed with hypoxia, the more time will remain for treatment.Three-dimensional ultrasound: I want to see everything! Modern methods of examination of pregnant women Exact forecast