Diagnosis of pregnancy

The diagnosis of the onset of an "interesting situation" in a woman does not leave a drop of doubt if at the time of the examination the particles of the embryo are determined, the fetus stirring and the heartbeat, the ultrasound reveals the presence of a fetal egg

methods of detection and diagnosis of pregnancy

These pregnancy symptoms, of course, do not occur at the earliest stages, but a little later. At an early stage, the diagnosis can be made only on the basis of potential and accurate symptoms.

Presumptive signs

These include symptoms that can not 100% indicate that a woman is fertilized, but may very likely be a symptom of this. So, these symptoms include the following:

  • change in taste preferences. A woman could have loved certain dishes before, but now they disgust her. There are whims - the desire to eat sharp, salty dishes, there is a craving for unusual components - to clay, chalk. There is also nausea, vomiting, especially in the morning, after waking up.
  • the sense of smell changes, there is disgust for certain smells, for example, to favorite perfumes, to tobacco smoke and so on. And before pregnancy to the woman these smells could strongly like.
  • the appearance of pigmentation on the skin. In particular, the pigmentation manifests itself on the nipples, on the white line of the abdomen, on the nipple circles.
  • change from the NA. A woman becomes very irritable, may be nervous about any seemingly insignificant trifles. There is also instability, frequent mood swings, drowsiness, lethargy, apathy, fast fatigue.

Probable Symptoms

These signs include a change in menstrual function and changes in the reproductive system:

  • monthly stops and does not come on time;
  • From the nipple colostrum begins to be allocated, in particular, if you press on the mammary glands (not much);
  • the consistency, shape, as well as the size of the uterus, change;
  • cyanosis of the vaginal mucosa, as well as the uterine neck. They acquire a bluish tinge;
  • breast increases in size, swells;
  • laboratory indicators (in the blood and urine, you can identify the chorionic hormone - the hormone of pregnancy).

Reliable Symptoms

Presumptive signs беременности

  • During palpation of the presence of fetal movement, movement can also be detected during ultrasound;
  • presence of baby's parts while probing the patient's abdomen;
  • listening to the baby's heartbeat. The diagnosis of pregnancy is exactly set if they reach 120 to 140 per minute.

Also, the probable symptom of fertilization is identified through a survey, a feeling of the chest and an attempt to squeeze colostrum out of it. It is important to do this not sharply and not strongly. Also, studies using mirrors are carried out.

The delay in menstruation is the most important sign, especially for women who are aware of the regularity of their own cycle. This symptom increases its importance if it occurs together with swelling of the breast and the presence of colostrum in it, with the manifestation of vaginal cyanosis, with a change in uterine consistency and volume.

As the "interesting position" progresses, the uterine size has the property of changing. If a woman is not pregnant, then her uterus in form resembles a pear, slightly having seals.

When a new life arises in a woman, the uterus changes its own form. It becomes a pear in the fifth week, and beginning at week 8, it becomes asymmetric, one corner of it may be larger than the other. Next, the uterus returns to the shape of the ball again, and by the end of pregnancy its shape is oval.

The main markers for determining pregnancy

The main markers for determining pregnancy

To the onset of pregnancy indicate:

  • Increased size of the uterus. You can notice this symptom not immediately, but only at the 6-7 week of gestation. Initially, there is an increase in the anteroposterior part, then an increase in the transverse dimension occurs. At the end of the second month of gestation, the uterus becomes large in size, approximately with a goose egg.
  • Symptom Gorwitz-Geghar. The uterus with the embryo has a soft texture, and they are soft to the maximum with an isthmus. When a study is being conducted, a specialist may notice that the fingers of both hands can unite without resistance to one another in the area of ​​the isthmus. This symptom confirms an early pregnancy.
  • A sign of Gouse. Provides that in the early stages of fertilization the uterine neck is slightly mobile. It is slightly displaced, and its isthmus becomes softer.
  • Piskachek's symptom does not provide for strong asymmetry of the uterus, which depends on the protrusion of one of its corners with the seventh week of gestation.
  • Symptom Snegirev. For the "interesting position" there is not a strong variation in the uterine consistency. The softened uterus with the present fruit under the influence of the stimulus of mechanical origin becomes more dense, except for this its size is reduced. After the stimulus ceases to function, the uterus becomes soft again.
  • Symptom of Genter. He assumes that in the presence of a pregnant uterus, she is strongly bent in front. This inflection is due to the powerful softening of the organ.

That is, the diagnosis under consideration can be made on the basis of clinical investigation data. But sometimes this state is not easy to establish. In this case, there are diagnostic methods that are carried out in the laboratory.

Establishment of early fertilization is based on the fact that in biological fluids of the female body, components that are characteristic of the state of pregnancy are found.

Diagnosis of pregnancy: types and methods

Current diagnostic methods of detection are divided into ultrasound, immunological, biological and other.

The last two options are based on the establishment in the urine of the hormone of pregnancy, which is called chorio gonadotropin. HG chemical composition is close to the pituitary gland. Production of HG starts from the first day of fertilization and lasts until the moment of labor.

pregnancy hormone

The maximum number of choriogonadropin is produced precisely in the second month after conception. Then there is a decrease in its quantity, which remains until the child's birth.

At the present time, immunological methods are actively used to establish early pregnancy periods. They are based on the complement fixation reaction. Suppression of the hemagglutination reaction can also be used.

The radioimmunological method is much more sensitive, in contrast to the previous one. The most commonly used method is a double antibody, which is based on the action of the antibody against hormones. To this way to establish a pregnancy hormone, it is recommended to use cooked kits, which are presented to the market by a variety of manufacturing companies.

The use of this method allows one to establish the exact amount of HC as early as one week after the woman has become pregnant. Innovative radioimmunoassay methods can determine even the most minimal values ​​of CG.

Express method of immunoenzyme. It allows you to determine the state of interest seven to fourteen days after the attachment of the fetus.

Other methods of research

Often used a method for monitoring temperature, which is called basal. This method is based on the influence of the hormone progesterone on the thermoregulatory center, which is located in the hypothalamus. BT for three months of gestation should be crushed daily in the morning, before that the woman should not eat anything. Use one and the same thermometer. At the same temperature should exceed 37 degrees.

basal temperature during pregnancy

Tracking the function of the cervical mucus is also based on the effect of the hormone on the chemical-physical function of the mucus. In pregnancy, the sign of "pupil" is not present, since the uterine neck canal in diameter is about 0.2 cm. When air is secreted from the canal in the air, there are no crystals of large size.

Establish a pregnancy with the use of ultrasound can be, starting with the fifth week of gestation. In this case, a specialist can find a fetal egg in the endometrial layer. It has the form of a circular shape, the diameter is from 0.3 to 0.5 cm.

How to determine the date and date of birth

This is done on the basis of such fixed data - the number when there was a delay in the monthly, the number when the first time the fetus moved. It also takes into account the size of the child inside the mother, the size of the woman's uterus, and also takes into account the data obtained by ultrasound diagnosis.

The period of gestation and the date of birth determine:

  • According to the number of recent menstruation. From the first day of the last menstrual period, they count the number of women at the time when the pregnant woman examines them. To determine the date when the baby is born, it is necessary to add to the first day of the last monthly 280 days. You can also use the formula called Nigale - it starts the number of the last months with the last one for three months and adds 7 dashes. This option is not suitable for those patients whose menstrual cycle is not regular.
  • On the first visit. Becoming on the account on pregnancy the expert should necessarily look or see a vagina of the patient during which time he can establish or install an exact term.
  • Ovulation. If, for certain circumstances, a woman can voice a potential date when the conception has occurred (IVF operation, rare sex, insemination of donor sperm), then the term begins to be counted from the date when the conception occurred, plus a two-week additive. And the number of births is set, counting from the date of potential ovulation thirty-eight weeks.
  • On the first stirring. The fixing of the term for the number of the very first stirring can only be carried out in the second part of the gestation. Usually women who are going to give birth for the first time feel how the fetus moves from the twentieth week, and those who give birth not for the first time can feel it already on the eighteenth week.
  • According to ultrasound. The accuracy of establishing a term using this method is quite accurate, especially in the first trimester bearing. In the second, as well as in the third trimester, the error can be a little more. This is because there can be a complicated pregnancy, and that each fetus has its own developmental features.
  • On leave before childbirth. The law provides that, starting from thirty weeks of gestation, the future mother may go on leave.

Week of pregnancy and characteristics

  • 4 week - the size of the uterus can be compared with a chicken egg;
  • 8 week - size such as a goose egg;
  • 12 week - the size of the uterus has the size of a male fist, the bottom is located at the top of the womb;
  • 16 week - the uterine bottom is located in the middle between the navel and the heart;
  • 20 week - the uterine bottom is located above the bosom at a distance of 12 cm, you can listen to the child's heartbeat, it starts to move and these movements are palpable;
  • 24 week - the uterine bottom is above the bosom, at a distance of 23-24 cm from it, approximately at the level where the navel is located;
  • 28 week - the uterine bottom is above the navel by about four cm;
  • 32 week - the uterine bottom is between the xiphoid process and the navel.
  • 36 week - the uterine bottom is at the level of the xiphoid process, the navel is smoothed, the size of the head is from 10 to 11 cm, the abdominal circumference is 90 cm.
  • 40 week - the uterine bottom begins to descend, the abdominal circumference from 96 to 99 cm.

Obstetric methods for determining the timing of pregnancy and its availability

To quickly calculate the duration of pregnancy and the forthcoming birth, there are obstetric, specially designed calendars.

obstetric calendar

To determine the period, the correct change in the height of the standing of the uterine fundus above the bosom plays an important role, as well as the volume of the pregnant abdomen. For this purpose a tazomer or centimeter tape is used.

The patient should be in this position - it lies on the back, legs are straight, it is important to make sure that the bladder is emptied before the examination. A change in the upper tip of the symphysis and the point of the uterine fundus, which is maximally given.

Studies to determine the period of gestation

In the second part of carrying out such a process, measure the abdomen, or rather its circumference, using a tape in a centimeter. It is initially imposed in front at the level where the navel is located, and at the back to the level of the location of the waist region.

The length of the child that is inside the mother is measured in order to obtain additional information for establishing the gestation period. Naturally, it is difficult to establish the exact size and is almost impossible.

The data that can be obtained in this way is only reference information, approximate. Also use and tazomer. A specialist through the wall of the peritoneum should feel the parts of the baby. One part of the device is installed down the head, and the other part - on the uterine bottom, where the nests are usually located.

obstetrician tachometer

It is established that the number will be equal to half the baby's. So the number you get should be multiplied by two. From the resulting figure, you eventually need to otminsovat 4-5 centimeters. Having received length, this number is divided by the number five and this will be the period of bearing in months.

Applying all these methods of establishing the period of gestation in the first trimester, you can find out the time to within one week. In the remaining trimesters, the risk of making mistakes increases slightly. The use of ultrasound increases the accuracy of determining the time of interest.

There are ways that a woman can use her own. You can measure basal temperature. If within eighteen days after ovulation it will be high, then this can confirm the onset of pregnancy.

Soreness and an increase in breast size, nausea, vomiting are all true companions of an interesting situation. The woman also gets more urge to urinate, dizziness, general fatigue, apathy, mood swings, changes in appetite. Also, a woman washes to make a pregnancy test, or to give blood for hCG.