Ovulation: signs of ovulation

signs of ovulationHow to recognize ovulation? Painful short-term sensations in the lower abdomen may herald ovulation. Also, it can be recognized by the increased mucous discharge from the vagina, and also at reduced rectal (basal) temperature, which again rises to the next day after ovulation.

More about this may indicate an increased level of progesterone in the blood plasma, etc. Ovulation cycle failure may occur due to dysfunction of the hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian system. This is possible with inflammation of the genitals, with dysfunction of the adrenal cortex or thyroid gland, with chronic diseases, with pituitary and hypothalamic tumors, and in a state of stress.

If there is no ovulation, when a woman is in reproductive age (this is called anovulation), it is expressed by violations of the menstrual cycle, when the discharge lasts 1 to 2 days (oligomenorrhea), amenorrhea, dysfunctional uterine bleeding. If ovulation is not available at all, the woman is diagnosed with infertility. To restore ovulation is possible with the intervention of qualified specialists, establishing the true cause of the violations and eliminating them with the help of properly prescribed medications and procedures.

Ovulation and contraception

ovulation and contraception Quite often during the ovulation period, women experience sexual attraction, or even arousal. Young couples with increased sexual activity can not fully rely on the contraceptive effect of abstinence from sexual acts during ovulation. It should also be borne in mind that bright emotional outbursts or nervous disorders can cause additional ovulation. This is more likely, if before that you had inconstant, casual intercourse. In such cases, for one menstrual cycle, two eggs can mature, instead of one. Remember this when you decide on which method of contraception to stop.

The physiology of the ovulation cycle

When a healthy girl at the age of 11 to 15 years begins the menstrual cycle, you can quite consciously talk about the readiness of her body to reproduce. But, at the same time, there are a number of issues related to the monthly. For example, how to correctly calculate the cycle, why the monthly did not go on time, or why you can not get pregnant in any way. All this constantly gnaws at the woman, she constantly waits, that will be further and up to the end does not realize, that occurs to it actually. These doubts haunt her for life. Duration of menstruation and cycle. Ideally, menstrual flow lasts 3 to 5 days and is repeated every 28 days. But at all, everything happens in different ways. There are women who have a cycle of 19 days, or less. And there are conversely, longer cycles, which can last from 35 to 45 days. And this will not be a deviation, it's just an individual feature of a certain female body. The bloody discharge can also go from three to seven days, and it should not be too exciting for you, it is quite normal. But if you have a delay that lasts more than two months (opsonia) or more than half a year (amenorrhea), then think about why this happens, and be sure to consult a gynecologist.

Duration of the menstrual cycle

Let's take a more detailed look at what a menstrual cycle is. This is a natural physiological process that accompanies a woman to the age of 45 - 55 years. For its regulation is responsible for the so-called sex centers, which are in the hypothalamus. Throughout the cycle, a number of transformations take place, which are most clearly observed in the uterus and ovaries.

Ovarian follicles together with the adrenal cortex and testes produce a number of hormones, under the influence of which the basic follicle, which places the egg in it, grows and develops. When the follicle completely ripens, it bursts, giving the egg freedom of movement. She, in turn, with the follicular fluid enters the uterine (fallopian) tube through the abdominal cavity.

The time when the follicle bursts and releases an ovule suitable for fertilization is called ovulation. If the menstrual cycle is a standard 28 days, it occurs approximately between 13 and 15 in the afternoon.

Duration of the menstrual cycle

Yellow body, estrogen, progesterone

Instead of a ruptured follicle, a yellow body appears. Such morphological changes in the ovary are invariably accompanied by the release of sex steroid hormones, namely estrogen and progesterone. In this case, the follicle produces estrogen, and the yellow body - progesterone. The most maximum release of estrogen can be twice per cycle: with ovulation and with peak activity of the yellow body. For example, the usual amount of estrogen in the female body is about 10 μg / l. During the period of ovulation, its amount increases significantly and is already 50 μg / l. In pregnancy, especially in later terms, these rates are even higher - 70 - 80 mcg / l. This is explained by the rapid increase in the biosynthesis of estrogens in the placenta. What are they for? Estrogens together with progesterone help the fertilized egg to penetrate into the uterus. In addition, with their help, pregnancy persists. They also contribute to the birth of labor. These hormones are extremely important for the female body. Their contribution is huge: they participate in the regulation of various biochemical processes, play an important role in carbohydrate metabolism, help distribute lipids, accelerate the synthesis of amino acids, nucleic acids and proteins. In addition, they help calcium to be deposited in bone tissue, do not let the sodium, potassium, phosphorus and water come out of the body. Estrogens increase the concentration of these elements in both blood and electrolytes (urine, saliva, tear, nasal secretions). Controlling the secretion of estrogens is the anterior pituitary and its genadotrophic hormones, namely, follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH). At the first stage of the menstrual cycle, which is also called folliculin, under the influence of estrogens, uterine regeneration takes place. Mucous membrane - endometrium is restored and enlarged, glands grow, stretching in length and curling. Thickening of the mucous membrane of the uterus becomes more 4 to 5 times. In addition, the secretion of mucous secretion in the glands of the cervix becomes abundant, the cervical canal widens, so that spermatozoa easily pass to the egg. Inside the dairy tract of the female breast, the epithelium develops.

Lutein phase

With the onset of the so-called luteal (derived from the Latin word luteus - yellow), or the second phase in the body, the activity of metabolic processes decreases. This happens under the influence of progesterone. The mucous membrane of the uterus body no longer grows, it becomes loose and swollen. In her glands a secret is formed, thanks to which the most comfortable conditions are created to connect the fertilized egg to the mucosa and develop the fetus. The mucus ceases to secrete from the glands, the cervical canal is obstructed. At the same time, the woman's breasts form the alveoli. They arise from the sprouting epithelium of the dairy passages. These alveoli are absolutely ready for production and the allocation of milk. If suddenly a desired pregnancy does not occur, the yellow body dies. There is a rejection of the functional layer of the endometrium and the menstrual cycle begins. These spotting can go from three to seven days. Blood at the same time goes from 40 to 150 grams.

ovulation phase

Terms of onset of ovulation

It is worth noting that the timing of onset of ovulation is not the same for all women. Sometimes the time parameters are strikingly different. Even the same woman can change the timing in different periods. There are also women who have an irregular menstrual cycle - the norm of life. Also, the cycles themselves can be different in duration. If the menstrual cycle is very short, ovulation may occur at the end of this period. But most often, all the same, ovulation is a regular phenomenon. It happens that ovulation does not occur for a number of reasons. In this case, the endometrial layer in the uterus goes out with menstrual discharge. When fertilizing an egg with a sperm, one can observe a certain vibration of the cytoplasm of the egg, similar to the oscillations during orgasm. If the sperm has penetrated, then the egg is fully ready for reproduction. The spermatozoon leaves in itself only the nucleus, in which there are 23 chromosomes - this is the half-set of a standard cell. The nucleus of the oocyte also contains 23 chromosomes.

When they collide, their shells dissolve, and they merge into one whole, forming thus 46 chromosomes and dividing into pairs. 22 chromosomes of the spermatozoon of the 23 completely repeat the chromosomes of the egg. They all carry information about the physical characteristics of the future person, but do not determine his gender. But in the remaining pair of chromosomes from the ovum is always X, and from the spermatozoon - either X or Y-chromosome. If they make up a pair of XX, then you will be carrying a girl, and if XY is a boy.

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