Health of pregnant women
Biorhythms: to submit to nature or to rebuild?
No matter how modern man wants to distance himself from nature, to take the lead of all natural processes, subordinating them to himself, we remain part of the world around us and ourselves are subject to its laws. And nature always reminds us of this. One of the main signs of our dependence on nature are biorhythms ...
Julia Lukina Therapeutist, Moscow
Biological rhythms (biorhythms) of a person is a certain cyclicity, periodicity of character and intensity of all biophysical, biochemical processes, beginning with the level of one living cell and finishing with the level of the whole organism.
The most clear are those biorhythms that correspond to certain natural cycles: day (day / night), lunar month, seasons. The scientific research confirms that biorhythms are an important component of human health preservation, normal functioning of the main regulatory systems of the organism - nervous and endocrine - and all other organ systems that depend on them.
For the work of internal biological clocks in the human body correspond to the brain department - the hypothalamus and appendages of the brain - the pituitary and the pituitary (pineal gland). These appendages produce a number of hormones and biologically active substances that through the other endocrine glands affect the activity of most of the body's functions, thereby maintaining a balance and facilitating adaptation to the changing environmental conditions of the environment.
The leading role in the regulation of the body's biological clock belongs to the epiphysis and melatonin produced by this gland. And melatonin is a universal regulator of biorhythms for all animals (beginning with unicellular organisms) and humans. It is melatonin that plays a leading role in the regulation of "sleep-wakefulness" cycles in seasonal changes in the body.
Larks, owls and pigeons: basic chronotypes
The most well-known classification of various biorhythmic types (chronotypes) includes three groups: larks, owls and pigeons. It is believed that the chronotype is genetically conditioned. The main characteristic of the chronotypes is the time of day with maximum capacity for work.
Larks early wake up, most active in the morning (maximum performance in the morning), in the second half they have a decline in activity, go to bed larks early.
Owls, on the contrary, they prefer not to get up early, but the peak of their activity is late-evening and night-time, when representatives of this chronotype can literally turn mountains.
Pigeons занимают промежуточное положение. Для этого хронотипа не существует ярко выраженных пиков физической и умственной активности. Pigeons способны подстраиваться под нужные условия и демонстрируют усредненные показатели двух других хронотипов.
In pregnancy, it is advisable to adhere to the regime of the day, where periods of activity and rest correspond to the features of your chronotype as much as possible. This period is not the best time to resist the needs of the body, so it's worth listening to his tips.
In addition, hormonal restructuring during pregnancy can lead to increased drowsiness, fatigue in the first trimester or insomnia - in the latter. Compliance with the regime of the day during pregnancy helps the body to adapt faster and better to changing conditions.
A lark, an owl or a dove? According to statistical data, about 40-45% of the urban population of developed countries are chronotypes of owls, 25% are larks and, accordingly, 30-35% - pigeons, or arrhythmics. According to other sources, most people in the world - about 45% - belong to the chronotype of the pigeon, while the share of owls and larks accounts for 35% and 20%, respectively. "Pure" representatives of each chronotype are very few - about 3%, and there are more women among them than men, all the rest are of mixed or transitional types.
The mode of pregnancy day for larks
Larks, as a rule, do not have problems with the morning rise: they get up easily and after 7 am rarely stay in bed. Representatives of this chronotype do not particularly need tonic drinks: strong tea and coffee.
Larks are useful in sports in the mornings - all the body systems are already active and ready for physical exertion. Therefore, for example, morning gymnastics will bring such a future mother a favor, unlike representatives of other chronotypes, for whom the harm from early physical training can be much more than good.
Most working schedules are most convenient for larks, so if you belong to this chronotype (and larks make up about 25% of all chronotypes), then most likely, you and during pregnancy will keep good performance in the morning, and in the absence of contraindications you can continue to go to work. Larks are characterized by a long peak activity from about 8-9 am to 12-13 hours. The second peak of activity lasts about two hours - from about 16 to 18 hours.
It is desirable for typical representatives of this chronotype to unload their schedule after 6 pm: skylarks are not recommended for sports, especially significant physical exertion. It is perfectly permissible to walk on foot at a moderate pace or swim in the pool.
Usually larks fall asleep easily, because by the evening they have a sharp decline in activity. However, if you have problems falling asleep, which can happen, especially in later pregnancy, it is recommended to take the following advice: give up noisy active activities in the evening hours, reduce physical activity during this time, short walks before going to bed in the fresh air are useful. The air in the bedroom should be fresh, cool - be sure to ventilate the room before going to bed. No noise should bother you - as a last resort (a noisy street outside the window, a party or crying of a restless baby from neighbors, etc.), use ear plugs. The room should be dark - this is the most favorable environment for the production of the sleep hormone melatonin. Dinner is desirable no later than 2-3 hours before going to bed. In occasion of application of any preparations improving a dream, it is necessary to consult with the attending physician.
What happens if a lark tries to become an owl?
Violations of the "sleep - wake" cycle cause a significant impact on the state of health. It is proved that chronic lack of sleep or intermittent, superficial sleep with frequent awakenings lead to a decrease in immunity, metabolic disorders, increased cardiovascular diseases, and mental disorders.
The regime of the day during pregnancy for owls
Morning rise is the most problematic point of the day's regime for typical owls. The usual (physiological) awakening for members of this chronotype is 10-11 in the morning. Of course, this time of recovery can not afford all. If you are a night owl, and it's always been very difficult for you to wake up in the morning, then in the first trimester of pregnancy, when a number of hormones that increase drowsiness are important, it can become quite unbearable. In such "hard" cases it is recommended to try somehow to solve this issue: to agree with the authorities about the later beginning of the working day, take a vacation: increased drowsiness, as a rule, is a problem only the first trimester of pregnancy. If you can not delay the time of morning lifting, you can use the following activities that will help you wrest you from the sweet embrace of sleep and increase your vitality.
It is worth remembering that a sharp rise adversely affects health (it is a powerful stress factor), therefore it is recommended to put the alarm for 20-30 minutes earlier, and it is desirable to choose some quiet melody. After 10-15 minutes, you need a second call with louder music, well, while on the rise you can choose a cheerful melody.
After waking up, it is recommended that you immediately take a shower, wash yourself to drive away the remnants of sleep. Active physical exercises for owls are undesirable: this is too stressful for the body in such a chronotype. Peaks of activity and high working capacity for owls fall between 13 and 14 hours, from 18 to 20 (the most productive period) and from 23 to one o'clock in the morning. Maximum physical activity is observed in owls at approximately 19 hours. At this time, it is recommended to plan sports activities: visiting fitness centers, swimming pools.
Sleeping in owls is often difficult due to the high activity of all systems in late evening and night hours. For the representatives of this chronotype, the same recommendations are useful as for larks. Try to go to bed at the same time and at work, and on weekends.
It is strongly recommended to adhere to the regime of the day during pregnancy, because under such conditions, hormonal changes and changes in the functioning of many body systems are easier. In addition, compliance with the regime of the day during pregnancy, normal sleep, moderate regular exercise have a pronounced anti-stress effect and favor the biorhythmic processes of our body.
"Failure" of biorhythms
The correct course of our internal clock is influenced by many factors. Failure of biorhythms threatens to worsen well-being. Scientists have proven that it is the violation of biorhythms that underlies such a widespread phenomenon as meteosensitivity and meteorological dependence (meteopathy). The general failure of biorhythms, which often occurs with a sharp change in the time or climatic zones, is called desynchronosis. With desynchronosis, virtually all functions of the body suffer: significant fluctuations in blood pressure, pulse, exacerbate chronic diseases, significantly reduced immunity, reduces the resistance of humans to various infectious diseases.
Significant hormonal reorganization during pregnancy creates conditions for increased sensitivity and vulnerability of the female body to the influence of any unfavorable factors and a fairly easy failure of biorhythms as a result of this impact.
The most significant influence on the correct course of our internal clocks is provided by light, temperature and magnetic storms. A significant increase in information flows, increased social tension, a significant increase in stress levels also have an extremely adverse effect on human biorhythms.
Light is one of the leading factors regulating biological cycles. Great importance in the synchronization of biorhythms depending on the illumination belongs to the epiphysis (department of the intermediate brain). Thanks to the photoreceptors of the epiphysis even the blind people at the level of biorhythms catch the change of day and night. A number of biologically active substances are produced in the epiphysis, which participate in the regulation of the immunity, puberty and extinction (menopause) of menstrual function, water-salt metabolism, pigmentation processes, aging of the organism, synchronization of sleep and wakefulness. According to some reports, it is the unfavorable effect on the epiphysis, which is exerted by many factors of the environment, underlies desynchronosis and meteopathy. Familiar moods, moods, feelings of depression, apathy are connected not so much with bad autumn or winter weather, but with a lack of sunlight. And the body easily distinguishes between natural and artificial lighting.
For the prevention of seasonal spleen and the development of autumn-winter desynchronosis daily walks are recommended in daylight, albeit meager, light.
The influence of the ambient temperature on the activity and cyclic succession of biological processes is programmed genetically. That is why a sharp change in the temperature regime, for example, during a flight from one climatic zone to another, with a sharp change in winter for the summer, can cause a severe failure of biorhythms (desynchronosis).
During pregnancy, these processes are more difficult and more prolonged. Desynchronosis and acclimatization (the process of adapting the organism to unusual climatic and geographical conditions) are manifested by jumps in blood pressure, insomnia, impaired appetite, headaches, depression and other troubles. Therefore, it is not recommended for future mothers to travel outside the usual temporary and climatic zones, but to rest in their (or close to their) climatic zone. If, in spite of the recommendations, the pregnant woman goes to distant countries, then for the prevention of severe desynchronosis and the successful course of the acclimatization process, it is necessary to strictly follow a number of rules: to lead a healthy lifestyle with adequate sleep, regular walks, proper nutrition. The first 2-3 days after the flight, when the inhibition processes predominate and the person, as a rule, feels lethargic, drowsiness, decay, you should unload your schedule as much as possible, allocate more time for sleep, limit physical, mental and emotional loads. The period from the 14th to 27th week of pregnancy is the safest for traveling future mothers.
Magnetic Storms in Pregnancy
Electromagnetic oscillations caused by the perturbation of the geomagnetic background in response to increased solar activity, as well as low-frequency sound vibrations that occur during the passage of cyclones, often cause the biorhythms to fail. This is the so-called phenomenon of forced synchronization, which disrupts the normal course of biological processes and provokes a deterioration of well-being. The walls of blood vessels are most sensitive to electromagnetic fluctuations. In addition, electromagnetic fields negatively affect the epiphysis - one of the main regulators and synchronizers of human biorhythms. During magnetic storms, spasm of blood vessels develops, in small vessels blood flow slows down, blood viscosity increases, propensity to blood clots increases, blood supply of many vital organs worsens, blood stress hormones such as cortisol, adrenaline increase, blood cholesterol level rises.
In the days of magnetic storms it is desirable to reduce physical and mental stress, if possible, to allocate more time for sleep, to get enough sleep, to switch to digestible products, reducing the load and digestive system.
Common rules that increase the "durability" of our internal clocks to various adverse effects are the rules of a healthy lifestyle. They assume compliance with the regime of the day, the normalization of sleep (an adult needs an average of at least 7-8 hours of night sleep, for expectant mothers, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, this time can increase to 10 hours of sleep per day), rejection of bad habits, regular exercise, rational nutrition. For pregnant women, compliance with these rules is especially necessary, since the failure of the biological clock during the child's expectation is very easy, recovery of biorhythms is more difficult, and the consequences of desynchronosis can be very serious.
If you follow the rules listed above, your internal clock will go right and clearly, setting the right rhythm for the work of the whole organism, which is especially important during pregnancy.
What are biorhythms?
There is a certain classification of biorhythms:
High-frequency biorhythms (ultradian - literally "shorter than the day") - their cycle lasts from fractions of a second to 20 hours, that is, these rhythms lasting less than a day. Such biorhythms obey the bioelectric activity of the heart, the brain. Examples of high frequency biorhythms are sleep phase changes (fast sleep phase / slow sleep phase); ability to concentrate attention (higher in the daytime hours, lower - in the night); alternation of cycles of sleep and wakefulness in newborns; Pain sensitivity is different at different times of the day, and so on.
Mid-frequency biorhythms (circadian, circadian, circadian) - the periodicity of these biorhythms is close to 24 hours (for plants - up to 28 hours) for animals and humans. Circadian rhythms obey changes during the day of arterial pressure (daytime - higher, at night - lower), heart rate (at night the heart beats less often); processes of synthesis and secretion of many hormones; fluctuations in body temperature (at night slightly decreases), etc. These are the most sensitive to all impacts of biorhythms.
Low-frequency biorhythms (infradian - "longer than the day") - biorhythms, whose cycle, as a rule, significantly exceeds the duration of the day. Examples of infra-dinary biorhythms are weekly cycles (change in the working capacity of a person depending on the day of the week: the highest on Wednesday, the lowest on Monday and Friday, about a month - the menstrual cycle in women, seasonal biorhythms, which are most clearly traced in the animal world (for example, hibernation some animals), however, the human body also responds to changes in the duration of daylight hours, solar activity, air temperature, weather conditions. exchange processes in the human body increases, and in the fall and winter - is reduced.
For the morning to be kind ... To help calm, "non-stressful" awakening, scientists invented alarm clocks to help owls simulate the dawn of the sun - a gradual increase in the illumination of the room during an hour and a half. Japanese scientists came up with an "aromatic" alarm clock: at the right time, it starts to emit a strong aroma of flowers or coffee, or freshly baked bread. It is believed that such an awakening will be milder and healthier than lifting with a sound alarm clock.