Health of pregnant women
Angina and pharyngitis in pregnancy: how dangerous and how to treat?
As a rule, expecting a child, a woman treats herself more attentively and reverently. However, within 9 months, it is not always possible to avoid various colds, which are often accompanied by pain in the throat. How to cope with this unpleasant symptom during pregnancy?
Elena Trifonova obstetrician-gynecologist, Moscow
The most common causes of pain in the throat are inflammatory diseases - angina and pharyngitis (inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx). As you know, during the period of bearing the baby weakened immunity. A child in the womb of a mother is half alien to her, since she contains only 50% of her genes, the second half inherits from her father. Some decrease in immunity prevents the rejection of a genetically foreign fetus. This increases the susceptibility of the organism to various viruses and bacteria, and therefore, the risk of contracting angina, pharyngitis or another infection during pregnancy. Angina
(or acute tonsillitis) is an acute inflammatory disease of the tonsils. Tonsils are accumulations of a specific, so-called lymphoid tissue in the nasopharynx and oral cavity. This tissue is involved in the production of blood cells, which provide protective responses of the body against infectious agents. Angina can be caused by various viruses and bacteria. The main symptom of the disease is a sore throat. Almost always an ailment is accompanied by an increase in body temperature to 37.5-39 ° C, and in severe cases and higher, there is a raid on the tonsils, the cervical and submandibular lymph nodes increase and become painful. The disease lasts an average of about a week. Pharyngitis
- an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx, the main causes of which are the same bacteria and viruses that can cause angina. Often, the appearance of pain in the throat is associated with a common cold. Abundant mucous discharge from the nose drains along the back wall of the pharynx, irritating it and causing pharyngitis. The disease is usually accompanied by a dry cough, a feeling of dryness, perspiration and sore throat. Often there is a fever, weakness, headache, there may be a rash on the skin, for example, if pharyngitis develops against the background of measles or scarlet fever.
What are the risks of angina and pharyngitis in pregnancy?
Angina, как и любое инфекционное заболевание, опасна развитием осложнений. Так, если возбудителем болезни является стрептококк, то могут возникнуть такие серьезные последствия, как заболевания сердца (ревматизм), поражение почек, суставов и желудочно-кишечного тракта. Во время беременности ангина наиболее опасна на ранних сроках. На сроке с 12 до 18 недель под влиянием вирусов и бактерий, вызывающих это заболевание, может нарушаться формирование органов центральной нервной системы малыша – головного и спинного мозга, возможно формирование пороков сердца, а также других органов и систем.
From the second trimester, intrauterine infection of the fetus is possible with the development of the inflammatory process in various organs - meningitis (inflammation of the meninges), encephalitis (inflammation of the brain substance), inflammation of the lungs and others. When the tissue and vessels of the placenta are affected, the fetal nutrition is disturbed and, as a result, the physical development of the fetus may be lagging behind. A certain danger during the disease of sore throat, pharyngitis and other infections during pregnancy is a prolonged rise in body temperature to 39-40 ° C. It becomes the reason of disturbance of metabolic processes and can negatively affect the formation of various organs of the baby. In addition to high temperature, any infection is accompanied by intoxication - the accumulation in the body of toxic substances formed as a result of vital activity and death of microorganisms, inflammatory reaction, metabolic changes. These toxins can enter the bloodstream of the fetus, also having an adverse effect. Infectious pharyngitis causes the same complications as angina.
In what cases should I see a doctor with a throat disease during pregnancy?
The appearance of pain in the throat of a pregnant woman is an indisputable reason to call a doctor. If the pain occurs after a trauma to the pharyngeal wall with solid or hot food, a bone of the fish, you need to contact the otolaryngologist. He will examine the pharyngeal mucosa, if necessary remove the foreign body, treat the wound and prescribe the necessary treatment. If the pain in the throat is associated with prolonged inhalation of irritants, first of all it is necessary to leave the room with polluted air. If after this pain persists, it is recommended to consult an ENT doctor. When symptoms of angina or pharyngitis also need to see a doctor. After all, only a specialist will be able to correctly diagnose, identify the cause that caused the disease, and prescribe the correct and effective treatment taking into account the characteristics of the state of the pregnant woman. With a mild course of the disease, you can visit the ENT doctor, with a moderate increase in temperature and sore throat should be called to the doctor's home, if the future mother has a high temperature (above 39 ° C) and an intense sore throat when swallowing, help. In these cases, hospitalization in a hospital is recommended for 24-hour monitoring by doctors of the condition of a woman.
How to treat angina and pharyngitis in pregnant women?
Naturally, the treatment of angina and pharyngitis depends on the cause that caused the disease. During pregnancy, you should avoid self-medication, because not all drugs, as well as medicinal herbs are safe for the baby's future. During illness it is necessary to be at home, and at rising temperature to observe a confinement. It needs a full meal with enough protein and vitamins. In addition, it is important to pay attention to the drinking regime. In any inflammatory process, especially when the temperature rises, it is necessary to drink as much warm (but not hot) liquid as water, tea, and fruit. Increased temperature with angina causes loss of fluid, which is necessary for the body of the future mother and child. In addition, the liquid helps to actively remove the toxins accumulating as a result of inflammation. It is advisable to drink at least 200 ml of liquid per hour (if there are no contraindications). Well relieve pain in the throat and accelerate the process of recovery of the rinse. To this end, usually apply infusion of chamomile, sea salt, saline or soda solutions, decoctions of eucalyptus. Quite often the doctor prescribes local drugs-sprays for the treatment of angina and pharyngitis. These drugs are very effective and convenient to use, and in addition are mostly safe for pregnant women, because they have a local effect and practically do not enter the bloodstream, and accordingly, to the fetus. It is possible to use lozenges, lozenges, tablets containing an antiseptic or anti-inflammatory component in combination with an analgesic effect or without it.
Если врач диагностирует ангину, он всегда назначает антибиотики. Не стоит этого бояться и отказываться от приема препаратов, ссылаясь на заботу о здоровье малыша. Angina всегда, в том числе и во время беременности, должна лечиться антибактериальными средствами. Риск возникновения осложнений на сердце или почки беременной женщины достаточно высок. Кроме того, высока вероятность осложнений со стороны плода или угрозы прерывания беременности. При фарингите антибиотики назначают только при тяжелом течении заболевания, когда повышена температура и нарушено общее состояние будущей мамы. Естественно, врач подберет лекарства, разрешенные во время беременности и безопасные для плода. Конкретный препарат, дозировка, кратность и длительность приема индивидуально подбираются врачом для каждой пациентки в зависимости от возбудителя ангины или фарингита, тяжести заболевания и вероятности возникновения осложнений. Во время болезни, а также после выздоровления беременная женщина должна находиться под более тщательным наблюдением врача-гинеколога, поскольку существует риск нарушений работы плаценты, ее отслойки, угрозы прерывания беременности. Примерно через 2 недели после перенесенной ангины необходимо сдать анализы крови и мочи, при необходимости – сделать ЭКГ. Своевременно поставленный диагноз и назначенное правильное лечение сводят риск осложнений к минимуму.
Prevention of sore throat and pharyngitis during pregnancy
The future mother should try not to get sick with ARVI and infectious diseases, especially in the period of epidemics. First of all, it is necessary to eat fully, take vitamins, walk outdoors daily, but it is important not to overcool. It is desirable to avoid places where a large number of people are going to, and the opportunity to face sick people and carriers of infection is very high. If someone at work or in the family gets sick, it's best to shield yourself from contact with this person.
Not only infections are to blame
- Sore throat can occur when inhaling irritating substances - tobacco smoke, alcohol, irritating gases, with prolonged inhalation of contaminated or cold air.
- Sometimes a sore throat can occur due to a simple mechanical damage to the mucous membrane of the larynx, for example, when swallowing excessively hard or hot food. It happens that the mucous membrane is injured, for example, by a fish bone. Such pain most often does not require any treatment and it passes by itself quickly enough. If pain persists, specialist consultation is required, since it is possible to infect the wound in the pharyngeal wall and develop an abscess (ulcer), which is usually accompanied by increased pain and fever.
What medicines can not be taken with angina and pharyngitis during pregnancy
With an increase in temperature, any drugs containing aspirin are contraindicated, since they can affect fetal hematopoies, increase the risk of placental abruption, bleeding during pregnancy and childbirth. Future mums can only use drugs that contain paracetamol.