In fitness and in sports there are principles that make it possible to build a competent training program, to choose the optimal load, to do it right and without harm to health, and, of course, to achieve their goals more efficiently and faster, knowing how much they are achievable. The main distinguish six, we will tell more about them.
- Supercompensation Именно это явление позволяет с уверенностью утверждать, что между тренировками в обязательном порядке необходим отдых. Supercompensation — это когда тот или иной ресурс организма будет прогрессировать в ходе восстановления. То есть, к примеру, если вы качаете мышцы, они будут расти и увеличиваться в размерах именно во время отдыха, в дни, когда нет тренировок. При этом разные мышечные волокна будут восстанавливаться по-разному, потому иногда между тренировками мы чувствуем себя активными и бодрыми, а иногда — разбитыми. Во время отдыха растет также сила мускулов и увеличивается выносливость всего организма. Если организм перетренирован, или вы не даете ему полноценно отдыхать и восстанавливаться, прогресса в росте мышц, похудении, улучшении физических качеств не будет.
- Sufficient load Sometimes even overload, you can say. It is necessary in physical work, so that the very principle of supercompensation will work, otherwise there will be no progress. What load should be, your coach will determine according to your level of physical fitness and health. If previously you did not do anything, the load should be minimal. As the passage of time, it will increase, but it is important to do this correctly and gradually, so as not to harm the health and avoid injuries. If the increase in load does not occur, there will be no progress in what exactly you want to achieve. This applies to weight loss when the plateau effect (weight loss) occurs due to the fact that the body has adapted to the training program and the load. This is also true for muscle growth, when the body is no longer sufficient for the weight that you took.
- Specificity The training program should be designed in such a way as to focus on that part of the body or the quality that you want to develop. If you are running, do not expect that you will increase the size of the biceps or tighten the triceps. In this case, the endurance of the body will increase, while the explosive muscle strength and flexibility will not develop. Conversely, getting carried away by power training and performing so-called "explosive" exercises, you can lift a lot of weight, but only a few times, while endurance and long loads will go to the background in progress. On the principle of specificity, a training program is built-one, and for a long time. For weight loss, for example, cardio-operations are mandatory, and to increase the mass and give the body relief - strength exercises, etc.
- Reversibility The principle of reversibility dictates directly to us that training should be regular. Imagine that you have been training a year on an enhanced program to develop sprint speed. If this quality is not maintained in the future, it will lose over time. So it is with excess weight, with muscle building, with the development of strength, endurance or flexibility. Fortunately, there is such a thing as muscle memory. If, due to a number of circumstances, you have made a big break in training, the muscles really can "remember" the former load and adapt to it. But it is advisable to perform at least some exercises on a regular basis in order not to allow a decrease in muscle mass and especially muscle atrophy.
- Cyclicity During the training program, the type of exercise must necessarily change, as well as the time of the session, and the level of physical activity. This is necessary so that the body does not have time to adapt to monotonous equal training, and that progress is always in progress. Typically, the entire training program, painted for a long time, will be cyclical. For example, one month you train intensively, at the limit of your abilities. And for another month classes will be easier, strengthening and toning. So the body will rest from the load and adapt to less intensity. Then the third month can also be made more active - and weight loss (or muscle growth) will go many times faster.
- Individuality Probably, this principle should be put not on the last, but on the first place, after all it, really, the most important. Any training should correspond to a specific person: the level of physical fitness, health status, medical indications, sex, age and weight, goals set. Each training should also be based on the current state of the body (fatigue, lack of sleep, illness, menstruation, etc.). There is no single universal training system or type of activity that would be suitable for everyone without exception. Only on the principle of individuality can you achieve the desired results.