Health & Care
Walking with a child in the winter
A healthy baby's skin is a guarantee of comfort and a good mood not only for the baby, but for his parents.
With the onset of winter cold, the sensitive skin of babies requires special care and care. How to take care of your baby's skin in winter?
Winter is a harsh season, and a real test for the skin, which, being the main protective barrier of our body, first meets the winter cold. Frost, snow, cold wind, dry air at home - all these inalienable companions of winter time have an unfavorable effect on the skin of even an adult. What can we say about the delicate and sensitive skin of babies, which is much more susceptible to the influence of aggressive factors! Children's skin is much thinner and more tender than adults, has a friable structure, the connections between epidermal cells (the upper layer of the skin) are fragile, so the skin of babies is lightly skinned and more prone to dryness and flaking.
Despite the fact that the children's skin contains more moisture, it dehydrates much faster than the skin of adults. The protective functions of the skin of babies are not yet fully formed, the water-lipid mantle (protective film protecting the skin from the influence of external factors, drying out, and penetration of microbes) is poorly developed, the processes of thermoregulation (generation and delivery of heat) are imperfect, local immunity is reduced. These features make the skin of babies more vulnerable to infections and very sensitive to changes in temperature and humidity of the environment.
Under the influence of frost, cold wind, rapid change of cold and warm air (when a child comes from a walk into a warm room), blood supply and skin nutrition is disturbed, the sebaceous glands that participate in the formation of a protective film are slowed, and the skin of the baby very quickly loses moisture. As a result, it becomes less elastic, begins to peel off, microcracks appear on its surface, and the underlying layers of the epidermis become more susceptible to the action of harmful external factors, especially pathogenic microorganisms and allergens. That is why the frequent result of winter walks with the baby is dryness, peeling, skin irritation and winds of the lips, and if the baby has spent too much time in the cold, prolonged spasm of blood vessels and violation of the blood supply to the skin can even lead to frostbite. Most often, exposed areas of the body are exposed to cold exposure - the child's cheeks, pens and sponges, but if the child is not properly dressed during the walk, the closed areas of the body may suffer from the weather.
However, winter cold - this is not an excuse to deprive the baby of walks in the fresh air. Moreover, walks in winter are especially useful for the health of the child. In winter, air is almost 1.5 times richer in oxygen and useful negative ions, in addition, it is much cleaner, since snow has the ability to absorb a significant amount of dust, soot and gases, which are saturated with the atmosphere of our cities. After walking, the child improves sleep and appetite. In addition, the cold is a powerful hardening factor that stimulates the defenses of the child's body. Do not be afraid of frost! To minimize the unpleasant consequences of the effects of cold on the baby's body, you only need to observe some "safety rules" and know how to protect the baby's skin from winter cold.
Walking with a child
Air temperature and duration of walks. The safe time spent on the street during the winter depends on the weather and the age of the child: the older the child and the better the weather, the longer may be the length of stay in the fresh air. And yet, when it's freezing outside, Mom can be scared to take a walk with a baby, especially if the crumb has not yet turned a month old.
Usually, when discharging from the hospital, the pediatrician gives recommendations for caring for the newborn, including when and how to start walking. If the child was born in the winter, you can leave for the first walk with him when the crumb turns 12-14 days, provided that the street is not below -5 ° C and calmly. At first, the duration of the winter walk should be 15-20 minutes, gradually its duration is adjusted to 1.5-2 hours 2 times a day. Babies at the age of 3 months can safely walk at a temperature of -10 ° C, children over six months are not afraid of frosts to -15 ° C. In areas with colder winter, but less humid air on windless days, a child can be outdoors and at a lower temperature. Children under 3 years of age should not be taken out for a walk at a temperature below -20 ° C.
Moderate exposure to low temperatures will have a positive effect on the health of the baby, but if you "walk", you can get hypothermia and even frostbite. Therefore, in frosty or windy weather, it is not worthwhile to stay on the street for a long time, it is better to shorten the walk to 20-30 minutes or several times during a walk briefly with the baby in a warm room. Too linger in the warmth is not worth it, as a clothed baby can sweat and get cold when entering the street. If the street is very cold (temperature below -15 ° C) or windy, it's best to dress the crumb warmer, arrange a "home walk" on the balcony or in the room with the window ajar.
Baby clothes. Caring for the baby's skin in the winter assumes the right clothes for a walk. To avoid the negative consequences of staying in the cold, it is very important to properly dress the baby in accordance with the weather. There are general requirements for how a child should be dressed for walking in the winter, observing them will help to avoid overheating, hypothermia and other undesirable problems.
Winter clothes for children should be warm, but at the same time light, spacious and comfortable. Heavy and tight clothes squeeze the skin and the blood and lymph vessels contained in them, which leads to a deterioration in the supply of tissues and increases the risk of frostbite. Do not wrap the child too tightly, as the layers of air between the layers of clothing help to keep heat away. Even "packed" for walking and still lying in a wheelchair the kid should be able to move the handles and legs. Sleeping in a stroller is best suited for a transformer suit (in the "envelope" position) or a special winter envelope. Clothes for the baby, who has already started walking, must reliably protect him from cold, moisture and wind, and at the same time allow him to actively and comfortably move. The shoes of the crumbs should also be sufficiently free to keep the air-insulated layer and not to squeeze the feet, hindering the blood flow. Currently, there is a large selection of children's winter clothes made from high-tech fabrics, they are light and thin, but at the same time have excellent thermal insulation properties and well retain heat. It is important that when dressing the baby, the mother takes into account these properties of clothes and does not "overdo" with the number of t-shirts and blouses under the overalls, otherwise the baby can easily overheat.
Clothing, immediately adjacent to the skin of the child, should be made only of natural materials. Synthetic fabrics poorly conduct heat and do not allow air to pass, preventing the skin from breathing. As a result, the body-heated air remains under the clothes, which leads to overheating and, as a result, increased sweating, while the skin of the child can remain wet for a long time, which can lead to irritation. In addition, the clothing that is wet from sweat loses its heat-insulating properties, and after overheating, hypothermia can quickly occur.
When dressing a child for a walk, it should be remembered that the head and limbs of a person have increased heat emission, so it is necessary to take care that the baby's head, hands and feet are always warm.
Even in cold weather, the face of a walking child should be open. You do not need to cover your nose and mouth with a scarf or throw a corner of the envelope on your face - from the exhaled air the fabric becomes wet and quickly freezes, contact with such a "protection" can lead to frostbite. In addition, the exhaled air, which the baby breathes, is more moist and depleted in oxygen, so the benefit of such a walk is significantly reduced, and the risk of colds increases.
Protect sensitive skin for children from harmful effects of cold and wind will help specially designed for this purpose, children's protective creams. Correctly selected means will protect the face of the baby from weathering, eliminate negative reactions from the environment, soften the skin and help restore its protective barrier. The main requirements for winter cream, as for any children's cosmetics, are safety, hypoallergenicity, natural basis, the absence of artificial colors and aggressive components (alcohol, alkali, etc.), the cream for the youngest should be clinically tested and approved by pediatricians. To choose a good baby cream, first of all you need to pay attention to its composition. The main components of winter creams are various fats: it can be natural vegetable oils (almond or sunflower oil, avocado oil, sea buckthorn, jojoba, grape seed, etc.), animal or vegetable waxes (beeswax, lanolin, palm wax) that cover skin with a thin film, preserving moisture in it, preventing airing and drying and at the same time not clogging the pores and allowing the skin to breathe. Unwanted components of the baby cream are mineral oils, which include paraffin, petroleum jelly, microcrystalline wax, etc. are artificial substances obtained from oil, practically insoluble in water and alcohols, they form an impermeable film on the surface of the epidermis and violate process of cutaneous respiration.
Cosmetics, in which the content of mineral oils exceeds 10%, are not recommended for use in children.
In addition to the use of special "winter" protective substrates, vitamins and extracts of medicinal herbs can also be contained in weather-resistant creams.
It should be borne in mind that the substances that make up the child's protective cream are listed in descending order of their share in the cream. Makeup formulations for children should not contain too many components and should be as simple as possible, as the more components in the cream, the more likely the occurrence of allergic reactions when it is used. Before using the new cream for the intended purpose, you need to make sure that it does not cause the baby allergies, for this house, apply a drop of cream on a small area of the baby's skin on the wrist or elbow and evaluate the results in a few hours: the cream fits the baby if the skin is in place its application will remain unchanged. Before buying children's protective cosmetics, it is necessary to pay attention to the presence on the package of the label "cream from bad weather", "for winter walks", etc., indicating the age at which this cream can be used, as well as the shelf life of the protective agent and tightness packaging. The selected baby cream should also have the necessary quality marks. In domestic creams this quality mark is GOST, in foreign - OKO-TEST, Zehr gut, Gut or certificates BDIH, Ecocert, Cosmebio, NaTrue, which say that this cosmetics is organic and environmentally friendly.
How to apply a cream
For a child lying in a closed carriage, which reliably protects him from the cold wind, the use of creams from frost is not necessary, even if it is periodically pulled out. To make a decision - whether to apply or not to apply the cream in such cases - should the mother, focusing on cold tolerance to the baby: if after the cheeks walk the crumbs remain smooth and covered with a healthy pink blush, the baby does not need a cream against frost, but if the baby's cheeks very quickly turn purple and weather-beaten, then sensitive skin of crumbs needs additional protection. Independently walking karapuzam, whose face on a walk is constantly open to frost and wind, "anti-cold" cream is useful if the air temperature drops below -3 ° C.
Special "winter" cosmetics should be applied to the open areas of the body (arms, neck, face, except the eye area) for 20-30 minutes before going out to get well absorbed and create a protective film on the skin that will not allow loss a lot of moisture. Do not apply the cream on the skin of the crumbs hastily, just before the walk. If the cream does not have time to absorb, remaining on the surface of the skin, the moisture that enters it will freeze in the frost and turn into the finest ice cake, so the cream itself will have a damaging effect instead of protecting it from the cold. For the same reasons, it is not possible to reapply the product in the cold. To protect the baby's skin from winter weather, it is not recommended to use ordinary baby creams that are not designed for use in wind and frost. Especially harmful to use moisturizing creams on a water basis, the large amount of water that they contain, turning into ice crystals, will further cool and damage the skin, increasing the risk of frostbite. It is also not recommended to use adult protective equipment, as they may contain fragrances, dyes and other components that are undesirable for the baby's skin.
Baby handles also need protection, even if the baby has warm mittens, a protective cream should also be applied under them. Needs special care and protection and a delicate skin of the lips, because it is completely devoid of the subcutaneous fat layer and the protective pigment of melanin. If the lips dry and froze from the frost, the lips need to be applied to them with a special hygienic lipstick (preferably without perfumes and dyes) 10-15 minutes before leaving the house, unlike the cream, it can be applied again during the walk. Lipstick for a baby, like other hygiene items, must be strictly individual, it is unacceptable for other family members to use it. Disturbing symptoms
During the winter walk, parents should carefully monitor the appearance of the first symptoms of hypothermia or frostbite, even if the child has not been for a walk for very long. It is important to remember that the risk of frostbite increases significantly in windy weather with high humidity. Even if the street is only about zero, but it is damp and blows a strong wind, the likelihood of skin damage and frostbite is very high. It should be remembered that a protective cream prevents airing and drying of the skin, but it does not save frostbite, as it does not warm the skin!
The blush on the baby's cheeks is perfectly normal, but the vascular system of the crumb is still very imperfect and can not withstand the cold for a long time. If the red cheeks of the karapuza have turned pale, they have become "marbled" with pink-white divorces or have acquired a bluish tinge - this may be a sign of frostbite. The first signs of general hypothermia are pallor, cyanotic nasolabial triangle and lip rims, cold to the touch, while not only the nose and cheeks (which may be normal) become cold, but also the bridge of the nose, neck, neck, hands and feet of the child. Restless behavior of the baby on a walk should become a signal for mom to first check the "control" areas of the body and make sure that the baby is not frozen.
Noticing the baby's first signs of general hypothermia or frostbite, you must immediately take it to a warm room and warm it, if possible, it is better to immediately change the crumbs into warm home clothes. The main task with frostbite is to restore blood circulation in damaged tissues, but the warming of the affected part of the body should be gradual, slow and predominantly passive (ie, warming naturally). A common mistake is trying to quickly warm the white areas, rubbing them with hands, mittens, cloth, alcohol and even snow. It is inadmissible to rub the frostbitten parts of the body, whatever it is! This contributes to even more damage to the affected tissue. Do not warm the frostbitten skin from a direct source of heat - a battery, a heater or a heating pad, and also under streams of warm and so much hot water - rapid warming prevents the restoration of blood flow in the deeper layers of tissues, which can lead to the death of cells.
Wait until the skin turns pink again, and then lubricate it with a cream containing panthenol, or other wound-healing remedies. When the skin begins to turn slightly pink, for a better recovery of blood supply, you can make a light massage of the frozen areas with warm, clean, dry hands. In order to warm the baby, you can put on his hands, legs and chest child's warming cream or just wrap it with a warm blanket and also give a warm drink. With easy frostbite, blood supply should be restored within 10-20 minutes. If after this time the skin is still pale or cyanotic or there are bubbles on the frost-bitten area, and if the parents have any doubts about the condition of the child, it is necessary to immediately consult a doctor.
In the future, problem areas need to be regularly lubricated with a cream containing panthenol, aloe and chamomile extracts, as well as vitamins A and E. Excellent olfactory and peeling skin has olive and stone oils, for example, peach or apricot, and also softening, moisturizing and restoring effect. glycerol. In order not to increase dryness and irritation, try not to wet the damaged skin for several days.
It should be remembered that the frost-bitten areas of the skin for a long time retain an increased sensitivity to cold, easily undergo repeated frostbite and therefore in the future need particularly reliable protection!
In winter, the skin suffers not only from frost, but also from the dryness of the air in the room due to the included heating and frequent use of heaters. Under the influence of dry air at home, the skin and mucous babies lose their moisture intensively, which immediately leads to a decrease in their protective functions, and the effect of frosty air on the walk further exacerbates the situation.
Humidification of air. One of the main conditions for maintaining a healthy baby skin in winter is to keep the house at the required humidity level - at least 50% (while in the heating season the moisture content in the air of our apartments sometimes does not exceed 20-25%). The optimal option to maintain a normal level of humidity in the nursery is the use of an air humidifier. In the absence of a humidifier, it is possible to increase the humidity in the room in various ways - to carry out frequent wet cleaning, leave open containers with water or water-soaked towels in the room, periodically spray clean water around the room with a spray gun, you can also install a small fountain or purchase an aquarium.
Moisturizing the skin. The skin of toddlers, as well as adults, needs to be moistened not only from the outside, but also from the inside, therefore in the heating season it is necessary to provide the baby with a sufficient drinking regime. A mother who is fully breastfed is enough for her mother's milk, but for babies who are "artificial", who get the mixture on schedule, and children older than six months who receive complementary foods, it is worthwhile to offer drinking more often during this period. To quench your thirst, your child is best served by pure drinking water.
Power and mode. Beneficial effect on the condition of the child's skin is a balanced diet rich in vitamins, and compliance with the regime of the day.
The rules of hygiene. An important role in maintaining the normal condition of the baby's skin in winter is played by hygienic procedures and choosing the right means for skin care. Bathing is one of the most favorite activities for kids, but in the heating season it can become an additional cause that causes dryness of the baby's skin. Avoid this will help to comply with the following rules: Water itself (especially hard and chlorinated) dries delicate baby skin, so it is not recommended to bathe your baby often in the winter. If you regularly wash and wash your baby before 1 year, you can bathe 2-3 times a week. Do not bathe the baby in hot water, which is known to dry the skin. The temperature of the bathing water should be comfortable and should not exceed body temperature of 36-37 ° C, the higher the water temperature, the more moisture the baby's skin loses. Bathing time should be limited to 10 minutes.
In winter, you must especially carefully choose the means for bathing your baby. It is recommended to use only liquid products - special soft baby foams that do not contain soap and alkaline components and do not dry the skin. Ordinary soap, even labeled "baby", has a very aggressive effect on the baby's skin, since it has an alkaline environment, unlike the slightly acidic natural environment of the baby's skin. With each bath, the alkaline components of the soap wash off the protective layer of the baby's skin, trying to restore it, the baby's organism removes moisture from the inner layers of the skin on the surface, thus the skin becomes dehydrated. To bathe a baby even with the most gentle cleanser is not recommended more than once a week.
It is not necessary without the need to add broths of herbs (especially chamomile, celandine, streaks), as well as a solution of potassium permanganate, since they very dry the skin. It should be remembered that experiments with new herbs or a combination of them can cause an allergic reaction.
After bathing, do not intensively rub the baby, so as not to damage the delicate skin, you just need to pat dry the body with a towel and allow the moisture to dry naturally.
If the child's skin is prone to dryness, after bathing, you can apply a baby moisturizer (cream, lotion or milk). Milk Mom puts on hands, and then a thin layer distributes the baby's body. On irritated skin areas, it is recommended to apply special soothing and regenerating protective creams or lotions with chamomile or aloe vera. If necessary, the moisturizer can be used several times during the day, most importantly - remember that it should be applied to the skin no later than one hour before the mother and child are going to leave the house.
Compliance with these simple rules for the care of your child's skin will allow her to remain velvety and silky for a long time, despite the frosts.
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