Tetanus is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases. The causative agent of tetanus is the bacterium of the family Bacillaceae (tetanus bacillus). Getting into the human body, it begins to release a dangerous toxin that affects the nervous system.
Tetanus stick is found almost everywhere: in the ground, street dust, feces of man and animals. For years she can live and prosper in the external environment in the form of a dispute, waiting for favorable conditions. Such disputes have amazing vitality. They are not affected by antiseptics, disinfectants and can even live for several hours at a temperature of 90 ° C. Spores grow in an anaerobic moist medium (where there is no access of oxygen) at a temperature of 37 ° C. In the human body, the tetanus stick gets through the damaged skin (scratches, wounds), mucous membranes. Infection with tetanus can be, for example, with burns, frostbite, an insect or animal sting, cuts, falls with a breach of the skin (bloody abrasions), etc.
From person to person, the infection is not transmitted, immunity to tetanus after recovery is not produced.
The incubation period is up to several weeks. Moreover, the shorter it is, the more severe the disease, and the higher the risk of the most tragic outcome. First the wound, even if it has healed, starts to hurt. A person feels a dull drawing pain, then headaches begin, muscles tense and twitch. Distinctive symptom: the chewing muscles convulsively contract, the mouth is almost impossible to open or unclench, the forehead wrinkles, the lips involuntarily stretch into a convulsive smile. Since spasm affects the muscles of the pharynx, a person can not swallow. Cramps affect the muscles of the limbs and the body. At the same time during sleep, the tension does not weaken. On the 3-4th day, breathing, urination and defecation are disturbed.
In the most severe cases, seizures reduce the muscles of the back, the head tilts back, the body arches, resting only on the back of the head and the heels.
The most dangerous for a person is the 7-14 days of illness. It is during this period that most deaths are recorded because of poisoning with tetanus toxins. And although with the invention of antibiotics, mortality from tetanus has decreased markedly, it is better not to risk the life and health of the child.
Restores the body after a tetanus very slowly, rehabilitation takes several months.Prevention of tetanus
The most reliable protection against tetanus is preventive vaccination. In the Russian national calendar, vaccinations are given simultaneously with vaccination against pertussis and diphtheria with a combined vaccine. As an emergency prophylaxis for deep wounds of soft tissues make a shot from tetanus.
The first time a tetanus vaccination is done at 3 months, then it repeats 4.5 and 6 months. Revaccination is recommended at 18 months and 6 years. The third revaccination is recommended in 14 years. Vaccination does not give lifelong immunity, so it should be repeated every 10 years from the time of the last booster. This calendar is recommended by the World Health Organization and adopted in our country.Vaccination against tetanus
Vaccination is carried out with the same vaccines as against pertussis and diphtheria. These are DTP vaccine, ADS-anatoxin, ADS-M toxoid, DT Vax, Imovax DT Adylt, Tetrakok 05, Infanrix, Bubo-M, Pentaxim. Details about these vaccines can be found in the article on diphtheria.
Combined vaccine infants usually enter the thigh, older children - in the upper third of the shoulder. In the place of administration, redness and slight swelling are possible. In addition, like any other vaccine, tetanus toxoid can cause fever, an allergic reaction, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. In very rare cases - anaphylactic shock, asthmatic attack, tachycardia, cardiac arrhythmia.
That is why it is so important to inform the doctor about all the alarming symptoms and allergy manifestations.
Contraindications to vaccination are: an allergy to many medications, an allergic reaction to previous vaccinations, an exacerbation of a chronic disease or an infectious disease, pregnancy. At the same time, one must understand that in young allergies and weakened babies, the likelihood that tetanus will be difficult to flow is higher. In any case, each time the decision to vaccinate is taken individually. After immunization immunity is usually not more than 10 years.Nothing to worry about: expected reactions to vaccination Vaccination: "for" and "against" Twilight lollipop