Smear for cytology (PAP test)
Pap test, what it is for the analysis should know all modern women, taking care of their health. This is a gynecological examination, a smear that can detect precancerous diseases and cervical cancer. Recall that this disease is one of the most common in women. But it does not appear immediately, it has symptoms-predecessors. That is why gynecologists pay great attention to the prevention of cancer, cytology of the cervix is an important stage of it.
This analysis should be given regularly, approximately once a year, to each woman. Always remember that the cancer of this part of the uterus is asymptomatic in the first stages. Only some women have spotting, spotting and minor pain in the lower abdomen.
Pap test Pap test is given in the middle of the menstrual cycle, when there are no signs of inflammation in the vagina. For 48 hours or less, you should not have sex, use hygiene tampons, douche, use local contraception, vaginal suppositories, etc. Also, do not go through gynecological examinations and colposcopy at the same time.
Take this analysis with the help of a special medical tool - cytostatics. During and immediately after taking the test, spotting spotting may appear, quite a bit. This is considered a variant of the norm and often happens with pregnant women, because they have very active blood circulation in the pelvic area.
Smear for cytology (PAP test) может быть отрицательным — это лучший результат, значит, беспокоиться не нужно, предраковых состояний нет. Повторить анализ можно через 1-2 года. Также в результате может быть сказано об изменениях клеток, характерных для воспалительного процесса. Он может возникнуть вследствие обострения генитального герпеса, вируса папилломы человека, вагинального кандидоза, бактериального вагиноза, трихомониаза и других заболеваний. В таком случае женщине рекомендуется пройти противовоспалительное лечение, а потом вновь сдать анализ, причем лучше пап-тест на основе жидкостной цитологии — он считается самым точным, но довольно дорогим.
If there is no inflammatory process, but unusual cells are still found, and a woman is given a mild (I) grade dysplasia (neoplasia), then the analysis should be repeated after 3-6 months. And if there are no positive changes, that is, again a pop test, a positive result shows that colposcopy is necessary - examination of the cervical surface under high magnification. If any expression is revealed, for example, leukoplakia, then a biopsy can be prescribed - a procedure in which a piece of tissue from the cervix is taken (for pinching off), in the part where the pathology is found, from it. Even in the female environment such an analysis is called "pinch". Do it usually in a stationary environment without anesthesia, but with local anesthesia spray or injection of lidocaine into the cervix. Although the procedure is already painless, since there are no nerve endings in the neck. Further treatment depends on the results of histological analysis. If the result is unfavorable, conization of the cervix can be prescribed - when the affected part is surgically removed.
If a grade III dysplasia is detected, then severe, then the treatment is always conization. Although this pathology can disappear on its own, that is, regress, there is no risk, because there is no less probability of a transition of severe dysplasia to adenocarcinoma in situ and squamous cell carcinoma.
With mild dysplasia, in case of detection of ectopia and human papillomavirus (HPV), a woman is recommended to cauterize her (treatment with radio waves, ultrasound, laser or high-frequency current).
This is how the prevention of cervical cancer in adult women is carried out. But there is another, no less effective way - this is the vaccination against HPV oncogenic types that cause cancer. Preparations for vaccination are called "Gardasil" and "Cervarix". On average, the cost of all stages of vaccination is 18-20 thousand rubles. It is proved that the drugs are effective for the vaccination of girls and girls not infected with this virus under 26 years of age. But this is only the prevention of cancer. The vaccine does not kill the already existing virus in the body and does not cure of cervical cancer.