The rise in temperature is a protective reaction of the body, therefore it is not always necessary to knock it down. But if the situation gets out of control and the thermometer's column stubbornly creeps up, modern antipyretic drugs will come to the rescue.
When a child's fever rises, some mothers and even more grandmothers prefer to knock her down immediately, giving the karapuza the appropriate medicine. Is it worth doing this? When a child should be given antipyretic and immediately consult a doctor, and when is it better to do other methods of lowering the temperature?Terms and figures
It seems to everyone that the normal body temperature is 36.6 ° C. But this is a very individual indicator, which also depends on the time of day, the emotional state, physical activity and age of the child. Fluctuations in temperature during the day in a healthy baby can normally be up to 1-1.5 ° C. The minimum values are typical for the morning, the maximum they reach in 18-20 hours. In addition, in children of the first year of life, the readings of the thermometer 35.5-37.7 ° C are permissible.
The temperature measurement is also influenced by the thermometer. Inside - in the rectum (in the pope) and external auditory canal, it will always be half a degree higher than on the skin - in the armpit or on the forehead. If in the priest the thermometer shows 38 ° С, it means, on the skin - 37,5 ° С, that is the value within the limits of the norm. But doctors recommend measuring the temperature after all in the armpit; make it more convenient and safer electronic thermometer. If the child is more than a year, you can also measure it with thermoscan in the external auditory canal.Subfebrile is the body temperature from 37,3-37,5 ° С to 38 ° С; about hyperthermia, or febrile (that is, evidence of a disease) temperature is said at 38-39 ° C, and about fever - if the thermometer's column rises above 39 ° C.
In order not to create grounds for unnecessary unrest:
- measure the temperature of the baby at the same time in the same place;
- do not put the thermometer immediately after sleep, if the child cries, is frightened or excited, just woke up, ate, made a "big" toilet. In these cases, the temperature, as a rule, will be increased.
Increasing the body temperature that is familiar to the child is a protective reaction of the body. Many viruses lose their pathogenic properties at high temperature. With an increase in temperature in the body, metabolic processes are intensified, and the production of antibodies (including interferon, in some cases), directed at combating the causative agent of the infection, is stimulated. Thus, by raising the internal temperature, the body is struggling with infection. And, conversely, by lowering the temperature, we help the virus to multiply.
At the same time, high fever can cause serious complications. Especially large is the risk in infants under 3 months of age, as well as in children with disabilities in the central nervous, cardiovascular or respiratory systems. Rapid temperature rise in them can trigger the development of so-called febrile seizures - loss of consciousness with a general strain of the muscles of the body and twitching of the limbs. Very dangerous for children and dehydration: with fever, the liquid from the surface of the skin and with rapid breathing evaporates more intensively, with intestinal infections it is lost even with a liquid stool and vomiting.
Therefore, before giving the child antipyretic drugs, evaluate his condition. If the young person eats with appetite, drinks, the skin is pink, the palms and feet are warm, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, antipyretic medicines can not be given until the thermometer column shows 38.5-39 ° C. But even if the child is lying at 37.5-38 ° C, he is not interested in toys, cartoons, refuses to drink, he is shivering, his skin is dry and pale, his feet are ice-cold, his forehead is fiery, drugs can not be dispensed with. At the same values, the temperature also goes down when the child is at risk.
If a child younger than 3 months has a temperature above 38 ° C, an emergency pediatrician consultation is required. Emergency medical care is also needed if a child with a fever has a history of drowsiness, drowsiness, he breaks down into a sharp and unusual cry, he has vomiting, a rash on his legs.It is possible to bring down the fever in a child, and without resorting to medication. Give the baby to drink more often, keep the temperature in his room at 20-21 ° C, change the baby into light cotton clothes, wipe the trunk and face of the crumb with a wet towel. Choose a medicine
The most safe for children are drugs based on paracetamol. This substance inhibits the synthesis of biologically active substances, which are produced during the inflammatory process. They can be used from 3 months (newborns should only be recommended by a doctor). The only contraindication is individual intolerance. A single dose of paracetamol is determined from the calculation of 10-15 mg / kg of weight. Re-take the medicine can not be earlier than 4 hours later. This means that drugs based on paracetamol can be given no more than 4-6 times a day, the maximum daily dose is 60 mg / kg of weight. The effect should come in 30 minutes, and it is not necessary to stubbornly shoot down the degrees to the norm. It is enough to improve the baby's condition, he began to show interest in others, he began to drink and play willingly.
If paracetamol does not help, the temperature persistently does not decrease, it is recommended to give an antipyretic agent based on ibuprofen. This substance also has an analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. The effect also occurs after 30 minutes, but the temperature decreases more quickly, and the effect of the drug persists longer: if a single dose of paracetamol can reduce the temperature by 1-1.5 ° for 2-4 hours, ibuprofen reduces the fever by 2 to 2 hours in 2 ° C and lasts up to 8 hours. Since ibuprofen is a very potent substance, the dose is less: 5-10 mg / kg of weight per dose and not more than 30 mg / kg of weight during the day.
The form of the medicine depends on the age and condition of the affected child. Very small it is better to put rectal suppositories, older children are given syrups and tablets. Rectal suppositories are also appropriate for vomiting, with liquid stools it is more expedient to give the medication through the mouth in the form of a syrup or a tablet. To children of the first 3 months of life, antipyretic drugs are given only for the purpose and under the supervision of a doctor.Forbidden preparations
- The use of aspirin as an antipyretic drug is possible, but strictly according to prescription and under the supervision of a doctor because of the risk of developing a specific adverse reaction.
- According to the international protocol, children are also not using analgin, since it is capable of causing severe damage to the hematopoietic system. But in Russia this drug, unfortunately, is used as an antipyretic agent in the form of intramuscular injection (often in combination with diphenhydramine).
- Up to 12 years, due to the risk of serious adverse reactions (bleeding, kidney and liver disorders), children and drugs based on nimesulide
- Antipyretics do not take courses. Repeated dose is administered only after a new increase in temperature and no more often than every 4-6 hours. Otherwise, you can skip the symptoms of complications and evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment.
- Antipyretics do not give preventively, this measure does not prevent the appearance of febrile seizures. An exception is the appointment of an antipyretic drug after the administration of certain types of vaccines to prevent postvaccinal temperature rise. In such a situation, the medicine is taken only once on the advice of the pediatrician.
- Strictly observe the maximum daily and single dosages, otherwise because of the increased concentration of the drug may develop toxic damage to the liver and kidneys.
- The interval of 4-6 hours is not maintained unless the drugs alternate on the basis of different active substances.
- All antipyretic drugs, like any medicine, should be given to the child only on the prescription of the doctor, and not the pharmacist in the pharmacy, friends or advertising. If your child has a temperature above 38.5 ° C, you can independently give him a single dose of paracetamol and consult a doctor. Further medication is only after consultation with the doctor!