Influenza is an acute infectious disease that is transmitted by airborne droplets and is caused by an RNA-containing virus of the family of orthomixoviruses. The disease is characterized by a rapid spread, with clear signs of toxicosis and intoxication and affects the respiratory tract.
Causes of this disease
The flu spreads through viruses A, B, C. Every year there is an epidemic of a virus of a certain group or several groups. Immunity, which was developed in the body on the virus last year, may be ineffective or not at all. The influenza virus is transmitted by contact with a sick person. When sneezing and coughing, the virus is released into the external environment. It is in the air or settles on any surface. A healthy person, along with air or particles, inhales the pathogen. The outbreak of influenza is observed in the autumn-winter period.
Symptoms of influenza
The most important symptom of the flu is an increase in body temperature to 30-40 degrees. In the joints there are pains, all body aches, chills, in the region of temples, superciliary arches, there is a headache, there is photophobia, sweating of the body is increased, painful sensations in the eyeballs. The patient's appetite decreases, sleep worsens. In some cases, fever, hallucinations and delusions occur. With such pronounced symptoms, there is almost no damage to the respiratory system. There is a cough, in the throat of the pershit, there is a stuffy nose, In complex currents of the disease, bleeding from the nose, subcutaneous hemorrhage, convulsions may occur. In rare cases, the patient may lose consciousness. On the wings of the lips and nose there are herpetic eruptions.
Complications of influenza
In small children, influenza is quite a serious disease. They have not yet developed the immune system, so improper treatment or untimely treatment can give their complications.
The complications of influenza include:
- Otitis. This disease occurs because of the physiological construction of the child's body. Influenza can lead to inflammation of the middle ear. In this case, the complication manifests itself in the intensified anxiety of the child, the babies can scream sharply, suck their breasts badly, cry violently, touch and scratch the ear, head rub against the pillow.
- Sinusitis. This complication occurs in children a little older. Children have a headache. If the child himself can not tell, this can be seen from the child's heightened anxiety. At a genyantritis the rhin is amplified, there are allocation from a nose.
- Pneumonia. This is a very complicated complication of the flu. It can occur in a child at any age. Pneumonia can arise and develop very quickly and very slowly. At the same time, for a long time, there can be no deterioration in the child's well-being. For this reason, the control of the doctor for the child is important for influenza. At a pneumonia at the kid the temperature strongly raises, there can be an otdyshka. At the beginning of the development of pneumonia, the child develops a dry cough, which after a while the child can hardly cough.
- The defeat of the nervous system. The child's nervous system is not completely formed. Since the influenza virus is very toxic, it can affect the nervous system. In this case, there is dizziness, headaches, with the movement of eyeballs there are pain. If the child has vomiting, convulsions, loss of consciousness, retardation, then it is necessary to call a doctor.
Diagnosis of influenza
According to clinical indications, it is impossible to diagnose influenza. The diagnosis can be assumed in the event that in an area where a child lives or was, declared an epidemic situation of a certain type of flu. If this is not the case, then special tests are carried out. For this, a smear is taken in the throat and it is determined by it which virus is in the body. Similarly, serological tests are performed to identify antibodies to the virus.
Treatment of influenza
Children suffer from influenza four to five times more often than adults.
The most important manifestation of influenza is a rise in temperature, which persists for five days. Body temperature can rise to 41.5 degrees. The child feels a strong headache, especially in the front part - whiskey, eyes, forehead, there is a dry cough, nose, lungs and throat are laid, the muscles feel pain. The general condition of the child worsens, he feels tired, sleepy. In some cases, children may experience diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Symptoms are manifested, mainly, within three to five days. If complications occur during the flu, the illness may be prolonged.
In children, this disease is difficult, therefore, bed rest is recommended. In order to reduce the aches in the body and lower the temperature, you need to take acetaminophen or other drugs that do not contain aspirin. During the treatment it will be better if the child is warmly dressed, but the room should be cool, the air should be wet. As often as possible, you need to ventilate the room, wash floors, moisturize. The baby may lose his appetite, forcibly do not force him to eat. The child should consume as much liquid as possible. The fluid should be equal in temperature to body temperature. It is recommended to drink tea, fruit drinks, compotes, decoctions of dried apricots, raisins. If the body temperature is very high and does not fall off, then every five minutes, wipe your hands, feet and stomach with vodka. After that, after half an hour check the body temperature, and if it does not go down, then take ibuprofen or paracetamol. The flu can not be treated with antibiotics, they can only harm and provoke complications. Children who have a disease with complications or with a serious degree of illness are subject to mandatory hospitalization.
Prevention of influenza
Prevention is carried out by inactivated vaccines, their effectiveness is verified by extensive experience. After carrying out of vaccination immunity through fourteen to twenty eight days starts to be developed and is saved during six-twelve months. You need to vaccinate every year, during the period of exacerbation of the flu. To prevent the flu, you need to isolate patients from healthy ones, use personal protective equipment - wear gauze masks on the face. If possible, the patient should avoid close contact.
You also need to adhere to such rules: you need to wash your hands often with soap, do not use cutlery, towels, glasses, dishes and other personal belongings of other people. Remember it is necessary that walking along the street is simple, it is almost impossible to catch the flu. To take security measures (to wear a gauze bandage) is necessary when you go to the store, to transport and so on. In the room, the optimal temperature is close to 20 degrees, humidity - 60-70%. Premises should be frequently and intensively ventilated. Air should not be overdried, since in the case of mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, local immunity becomes weaker, and it becomes easier for viruses to overcome the body.