What are the tests for? Their results give doctors information about what is happening in the body of kids, help to more accurately diagnose, determine the stage in which the disease is located, choose a course of treatment and monitor the recovery process.
Each diagnostic study is carried out for a specific purpose, has its own merits and a certain spectrum of action.
Help to study the structure and shape of the organ, its size and location in relation to other organs and tissues. In this case, possible violations in the operation of systems remain "behind the scenes" in the literal sense of the word.
BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD INVESTIGATION
Gives information about the activity of the liver, kidneys, endocrine glands, metabolic conditions, but not about infectious diseases. To detect infection in the body, doctors prescribe to patients other tests, which, alas, it is impossible to get an idea of how disrupted the work of the diseased organ. That's why, in order to create a complete picture of what is happening in the body, doctors resort to several methods at once.
INVASIVE PROCEDURES (let's call them aggressive)
These are medical manipulations that are not very pleasant for a child, such as taking blood from a vein, swallowing an endoscopic tube, or procedures that carry a certain risk to the patient. These are studies performed under general anesthesia (for example, bronchoscopy), examinations using a contrast medium (excretory urography, cystography, angiography) or provocative tests whose purpose is to increase the disease and make its symptoms more obvious.
NON-INVASIVE METHODS (that is, non-aggressive)
These include ultrasound, urine and feces analysis, ECG (electrocardiography), EEG (electroencephalography), X-ray without contrast agent (if not done very often), a common blood test that is taken from the finger. Usually, doctors tend to get maximum information, assigning non-invasive tests to children, and only if necessary resort to other methods.From simple to complex
A general analysis of blood or urine is the most universal procedure that a doctor of any specialty may need. A general blood test will provide the doctor with information on the level of hemoglobin and erythrocytes (a decrease in these indicators may suggest a latent bleeding or lack of iron - anemia, and sometimes indicates a lack of vitamins or a disease of the hematopoiesis system). The level of leukocytes and ESR (the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation) show that there is inflammation in the body. An increase in the number of eosinophils may indicate the appearance of worms or allergies. And the results of the general analysis of urine make it possible to judge the state of the urinary tract: the number of leukocytes depends on the diagnosis - pyelonephritis (inflammation of the kidneys), cystitis (inflammation of the bladder) or urethritis (inflammation of the urinary tract).
ATTENTION! In very young children, some indicators differ from the norms for adults, which are usually printed on letterhead. For example, in children who are not yet a year old, the level of hemoglobin should be not less than 100 g / l, and in the form there is a figure of 130 g / l.
Ultrasound is the most accessible and informative method for examining the gastrointestinal tract (ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs), kidneys (or retroperitoneal space), internal female genitalia (uterus and appendages), brain structures (neurosonography), heart (echocardiography), joints. With the help of ultrasound, you can determine the size of the abdominal cavity (liver, gallbladder, pancreas), find signs of gastritis and gastroduodenitis, to study the ability of the gallbladder to contract.With the help of ultrasound studies, a doctor may suspect congenital malformations of internal organs (other examinations may be required to confirm the diagnosis), to determine the cause of heart murmurs.
Analysis of feces for dysbiosis. This study is considered important, since the state of the intestinal microflora is one of the indicators of the normal functioning of the digestive system. Plus, the analysis allows you to detect some signs of inflammation in the intestine.
Kaprologiya - analysis of feces, which shows how the process of digestion of food (proteins, fats, cellulose) occurs, is there any inflammation in the intestine, and in the contents of the pot - impurities (blood, mucus or greens).
Analysis of feces for carbohydrates. This study allows us to understand how the process of assimilation of carbohydrates - glucose, lactose, starch, galactose - takes place in the intestine.
ATTENTION! A normal parameter for very young children is 0.25%. But do not forget that this value is not the upper limit of the norm, but the average. In most healthy babies, the percentage of carbohydrates is increased to one. This is because the systems that produce enzymes are not yet fully ripe.
Analysis of feces for eggs of worms and protozoa, scraping for enterobiasis. The purpose of these studies is to detect parasites that may be in the baby's intestines. The appearance of worms or the simplest microorganisms (lamblia) can disrupt the work of the gastrointestinal tract, cause allergies or weaken immunity.
ATTENTION! The results of these analyzes are rarely reliable. And even if the research is carried out several times, it almost does not increase the probability of detecting worms. In order to find parasites, doctors should use other methods of diagnosis. First of all, you need to understand what the probability of their appearance in the baby, and then try to find manifestations of this condition and study the results of other studies. Thus, an increase in the number of eosinophils in a general blood test or a reduction in the amount of E. coli in the analysis of dysbiosis indicates a presumptive appearance of worms.
Blood chemistry. Indicators such as AlT, AsT, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, cholesterol, give the doctor information about the liver, and other parameters, such as serum iron, protein, electrolytes, help detect diseases such as anemia or diabetes mellitus.
X-ray examinations: a survey, contrast study, irigography, fluorography. An overview radiograph of the intestine allows you to see gas accumulations, some tumors and stones, objects accidentally trapped in the intestine.
The study with contrasting substance (barium oxide) shows the patency of various parts of the gastrointestinal tract, beginning from the esophagus and ending with the rectum (during this procedure you can see tumors or ulcers of the intestine). Other types of X-ray can detect lung inflammation, sinusitis, adenoids, bone fractures, dislocations, malformations of the urinary system, suspicion of tuberculosis, hemorrhages in internal organs. A variety of X-ray examination is computed tomography and angiography.
Endoscopic research. With the help of special optics, the doctor examines the mucosa of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum (gastroscopy), bladder (cystoscopy), rectum and colon (colonoscopy), abdominal cavity (laparoscopy), bronchi (bronchoscopy). With the help of endoscopic equipment, doctors can not only examine the abdominal cavity, but also remove polyps or stop bleeding. As for laparoscopic operations, when a special device (endoscope) is inserted through a small hole in the anterior abdominal wall, this method is usually used for suspected acute inflammation in the abdominal cavity (appendicitis, peritonitis) or for the treatment of liver and gallbladder diseases.
ATTENTION! Endoscopic studies are considered invasive diagnostic methods. The doctor should have good reasons to prescribe them to the child.
Biopsy. At the time of the endoscopic examination, a specialist can take a small piece of the organ to then carefully study it under a microscope.
Gastric sounding is a method of obtaining gastric juice or the contents of the duodenum. It is prescribed to small patients in case of gastritis or liver diseases and bile ducts. One of the methods of detection in the body of a lamblias kid.
ATTENTION! Gastric sounding is an invasive method of diagnosis, that's why, without serious reason for kids, this procedure is not prescribed.
ECG (electrocardiography) is a simple, non-invasive method for diagnosing heart disease. However, serious problems, such as congenital heart disease, can not be determined with the help of ECG. For this, there is another study: ultrasound of the heart. By the way, very small children are prescribed ECG now very rarely.
EEG - electroencephalography. A special study that confirms serious neurological diseases (eg, epilepsy). Usually, babies are recommended to do neurosonography (ultrasound of the brain).
Ultrasound of the brain. This procedure allows you to detect intracranial pressure or hydrocephalus ("edema" of the brain).Find an infection
To this end, doctors operate in two ways.To determine if a baby's vaccine works, the ELISA method can be used: the antibodies found in the blood to infectious agents of infectious diseases, from which the vaccination was conducted, indicates that the child is safely protected.
Identify the causative agent of infection, "growing" it in special conditions (this method is called microbiological or bacteriological culture); determine in the saliva, urine or blood of the patient a particle of the microbe by PCR (polymerase chain reaction); find toxins - the products of vital activity of a harmful microorganism and its constituent structures.
Investigate the reaction of the immune system in response to the infection: it is known that different immunoglobulins "come out" to fight with microorganisms. To do this, doctors use special methods, for example ELISA - enzyme immunoassay, RCC - complement binding reaction, RPGA - direct agglutination reaction.Price = quality? The task of microbiological research is to reveal the sensitivity of the microbe to antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs, the stage of the disease development, to determine how effectively the chosen treatment is.
It is important to understand that the cost of the study and its diagnostic value are not related. Diagnostic studies really differ from each other also in terms of cost. Now patients have everything, everything, from "free" general clinical tests to super-modern and super-expensive procedures using computers, nuclear magnetic resonances, powerful laboratories. The price of the analysis is determined by many criteria: it includes the cost of reagents and equipment, the complexity of the study or the degree of its invasiveness. But there is no direct correlation between the cost of research and quality in most cases.
Fortunately, experienced doctors often relieve their patients of unjustified costs for examinations. But even if the doctor does not experience difficulties in diagnosing, the results of mandatory research should be at his fingertips. After all, some diseases have similar symptoms, but require different treatments. Thus, abdominal pain can be caused by bacteria, protozoa, worms or malfunctioning of the digestive system. In the first case, blood tests or feces will help to find out about it, and in the second - ultrasound, gastroscopy or microbiological studies (for example, analysis of feces for dysbiosis).Read on this topic:
- Why torture a child with tests?
- Child Health Insurance
- Doctor, we are to you