Intestinal infections in babies, alas, are not uncommon. This is a large group of diseases, the main symptom of which is diarrhea (diarrhea). In summer, the risk of getting sick increases. What you need to know in order to protect the baby from this scourge? What causes the disease
BACTERIA: Salmonella, shigella (causative agent of dysentery), enteropathogenic E. coli, Staphylococcus, Yersinia.
VIRUSES: enteroviruses, astroviruses, parvoviruses and the most famous of them - rotavirus.
The simplest: lamblia, amoeba, blastocyst.Where does that come from
Infection with intestinal infection can be through dirty hands, poorly washed vegetables, fruits, stale or poorly cooked or roasted foods. And sometimes troubles begin after swimming in a river or a lake (who will guarantee that dirty water does not get into the baby's mouth?). As for rotavirus and other viruses, they are transmitted by the so-called airborne droplets, that is, at the moment of communication or accidental contact with a sick person.
The rush hour of intestinal infections is summer, but they can be picked up in the cold season: in winter, the virus is caused by the viruses, and is called intestinal flu or ARI with intestinal syndrome.How is the diagnosis made?
It is known that only some intestinal ailments are recognized without difficulty. Rotavirus infection, for example, is relatively easy, accompanied by vomiting, watery stools and symptoms that are characteristic of ARVI. In addition, this disease, as we have already said, just get infected. Dysentery passes much heavier, it is characterized by a stool with mucus and blood, severe pain and cramps in the abdomen. With regard to salmonellosis, during the disease the contents of the pot resemble a marshy slime: it becomes liquid and becomes saturated green. All other pathogens of intestinal infections can not be identified, therefore, the doctor puts the child to the diagnosis of KINE (intestinal infection of unknown etiology) and indicates the main "direction" of the disease - vomiting, watery stool (enteritis), loose stool (colitis) or a combination of two symptoms (gastroenteritis, enterocolitis).How does the intestinal infection
Usually, intestinal infection develops according to a certain scenario. The incubation period - the time from the moment of infection to the appearance of the first symptoms - lasts from a few hours to 3-4 days. That is, the baby can begin diarrhea, even if stale food or poorly washed fruits he ate a few days ago. Usually, the disease manifests itself as a malaise: the child is inactive, quickly tired, and capricious. After that, on the same day or the same night or the next morning begins an acute period of intestinal infection, which lasts from 1 to 14 days: the baby appears vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, the temperature rises. Sometimes these symptoms change or do not appear at all: for example, some infections go without diarrhea, only with vomiting and fever; others start with vomiting, and continue with diarrhea; others do not cause fever.
The acute period of the illness ends at the moment when the child's temperature drops and the main manifestation of the disease stops - diarrhea or vomiting. After the recovery period comes, which can last from 2 weeks to several years, if the doctor does not give the baby the right treatment. Since at this time the work of the gastrointestinal tract is just getting better, the child will most likely start a malfunction with a stool (it will be liquid, sometimes difficult, then normal, then undigested). Sometimes children complain of abdominal pain, weakness, often they have a rash on their skin. Since at this time the baby becomes vulnerable to viruses and bacteria, remember that he can again catch the intestinal infection or catch a cold.Since usually intestinal infections catch children on vacation, keep a first aid kit with such drugs: furazolidone and / or enterofuril (suspension); Mezim-forte, Berlin-Chemie; Creon, Solvay Pharma; Linex, LEK; Regirron, Orion; Smecta, Beaufour Ipsen; Motilium, Janssen-Cilag; But-shpa, "Sanofi-Synthelabo." First-aid plan for intestinal infection
Since the tactics of treating intestinal infections do not depend on the pathogen, it is possible to start taking measures before obtaining the results of the tests:
- Fight with harmful microbes: both with those that caused the disease, and with those that are "sleeping" always live in the intestines (the so-called conditionally pathogenic flora).
- To help the work of the gastrointestinal tract.
- Maintain and restore normal intestinal microflora.
- Resist to dehydration.
- To excrete toxins from the body - the products of vital activity of harmful microbes.
- Get rid of the symptoms of the disease.
After the acute period of intestinal infection begins, during 3-7 days the child needs to give an antiseptic drug: furazolidone or enterofuril (suspension). These drugs work well against most pathogens of intestinal infections (including helping to get rid of salmonella or dysentery) and do not allow "paroxysmal" conditional-pathogenic flora of the intestine. In addition, antiseptics do not cause dysbiosis and do not affect the immune system of the child, than they differ from antibiotics.
In addition to intestinal antiseptics, it is possible to give a child a biopreparation that has an antimicrobial effect (bactisubtil, biosporin, sporobacterin, Enterol, Biocodex). A good action is provided by complex immunoglobulin preparations (CIP), which act against bacteria and viruses and strengthen immunity. After the causative agent of the disease is found (usually the answer to bacterial culture comes when the acute period is already ending), the doctor can add to the list a bacteriophage that will act against a specific "enemy".
How will the disease go - depends on the pathogen, the number of microbes that have got into the body, the state of the child (whether everything is in order with immunity, is there a dysbacteriosis) and the treatment prescribed by a doctor.
Simultaneously with the antiseptic for 2-3 weeks, it is worth giving the baby a probiotic - a remedy with live bacteria of the normal intestinal flora (Linex, LEK, Primadofilus, Nature's Way, floradophilus, bifidumbacterin). And to support the work of the gastrointestinal tract for 5-10 days, the baby will need a drug with enzymes, for example, Mezim-forte (Berlin-Chemie) or Creon (Solvay Pharma).
Depending on how the intestinal infection proceeds, the doctor may prescribe the child and other medicines: Motilium (Janssen-Cilag) - from nausea or vomiting; But-shpu (Sanofi-Synthelabo) to relieve severe pain in the abdomen and cramps; antipyretics, if the child has a high fever. With regard to antidiarrheal remedies such as Imodium (Janssen-Cilag), it is not necessary to apply them in the acute stage of the disease: otherwise toxins from the intestine will get into the blood, and this threatens the baby with severe poisoning.
ATTENTION! If the doctor will give the child the right treatment, the acute period of the illness will be reduced to 3-4 days (without intervention, it can last 7-14 days), and the recovery will be more smooth and without serious consequences.Replenish inventory
Dehydration is the main trouble that can happen because of an intestinal infection: along with diarrhea and vomiting, a child loses too much body water. Especially fast dehydration develops in children under 2 years. Therefore, start replenishing fluid loss as soon as you notice that the situation does not improve (for example, vomiting occurs more than 5 times a day, the child's chair is very liquid, the temperature has risen above 39 ° C). For these purposes, saline solutions (Regiodron, Orion), 5% glucose solution and the usual drink, which the baby prefers - tea, compote, mors, are suitable.
Salt solutions offer the child often and in small portions (5-20 ml every 15-30 minutes). If the baby is sick, give another drink, and if it feels good, let him drink as much as he wants. It helps in this situation Smecta (Beaufour Ipsen) - a remedy that detoxifies and quickly stops diarrhea and vomiting, or other drugs with the same action - activated charcoal, filter.Food Rules
If in the first days of illness the baby will refuse to eat, do not feed him forcibly (it is much more important to give him a drink). However, to starve a child is also not worth it. During illness, do not give the baby food that he has never tried. Food should be offered in small portions, but often.
Refuse raw vegetables and fruits (except bananas), raw milk, fried, fatty, hot and sweets. Boiled or baked vegetables and fruits, sour-milk products, lean meat, milk porridge, boiled milk can and should be left.
After the acute period of the illness is over, return to the usual menu.Extreme measures
Most intestinal infections are well treated at home, but in some cases the child will have to go to the hospital. This is required if:
- The disease proceeds very hard, with high fever, unstable vomiting or diarrhea.
- The baby started dehydration. Remember the signs of this condition: dry lips and mouth, sharpening of the facial features, greyish hue and flabbiness of the skin, in infants - dip in the fontanel, frequent palpitation, loss of 10% of weight.
- The baby has convulsions, the baby has lost consciousness or has started delirious.
Do not forget that under the guise of a muscular infection, a child may experience acute appendicitis, which is also accompanied by vomiting and fever, but, as a rule, does not cause diarrhea. If the child has a strong stomachache, show it to the surgeon. Remember also that sometimes the main manifestations of intestinal infections occur for other reasons. So, in children under 1 year, diarrhea can happen because of lactase deficiency or dysbiosis, and vomiting in older children - due to dyskinesia bile ducts or disruption of the pancreas. In this situation, you will need the help of a gastroenterologist.To avoid intestinal infections:
- after returning from a walk or visiting the toilet, wash your hands with the baby;
- well boil and saute meat and fish, keep fast food in the fridge;
- Wash vegetables and fruits with soap, and the herbs and berries firstly hold 10-15 minutes in a bowl with water, then rinse with running water.
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