Causes of appendicitis
It is believed that the most important reason for the development of acute appendicitis is an inflammatory process in the intestinal flora of the appendix. Inflammation can be caused by a mechanical blockade of the lumen of the appendix. The main cause of blockage are stool stones, hyperplasia of lymphoid follicles, in some cases foreign bodies, tumors, parasites. As a result of one or several reasons in the lumen of the shoot, mucus begins to collect and a large number of bacteria appear. They cause purulent process of the mucous membrane of the appendix and its corresponding layers, necrosis of the appendix wall, and thrombosis of the vessels. There is also an infectious cause of appendicitis. Infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, typhoid fever, amoebiasis, parasitic infections can trigger the onset of appendicitis. The disease can also be caused by impaired blood circulation of the process as a result of nervous system irritations.
Symptoms of appendicitis
The child often complains of pain in the abdomen. If the pain lasts for several days and is not very strong, then the parents do not attach any importance to this. The child continues to lead the usual rhythm of life, his state of health deteriorates noticeably, he becomes sedentary, tries to lie more, refuses to eat. This begins to alarm the parents. Sometimes it happens that in the morning there are sharp pains in the abdomen, the temperature rises, nausea appears, while walking pain is given to the right side of the abdomen and to the right leg. To the belly of the child it is impossible to touch, if you sharply press on the stomach, he will scream in pain. In this case, the emergence of acute appendicitis - inflammation of the appendix. But only the doctor can diagnose appendicitis on the basis of a blood test. Appendicitis can be confused with many other diseases, so it is difficult to diagnose it.
This is due to the fact that often an appendix may not be classically located, that is not in the right corner in the lower abdomen, but in other places. A total of 30% of children this disease is typical, the remaining 70% - atypical. If the appendix is located atypically, then pain in the rectum, in the back, may occur. If the appendix is located closer to the pelvis, then urination becomes more frequent, accompanied by pains in the abdomen. When the adrenal is found, the pain can occur in the area of the stomach, and after that go to the right lower abdomen. In children under the age of three, the pain does not mainly concentrate in one place. About the disease can testify to the behavior of the child, he begins to cry often, diarrhea, vomiting, the child refuses food, sharply increases body temperature to 39-39.5 degrees. Mucous membranes of the child's mouth become dry, the body is dehydrated.In children from three years to seven other symptoms are manifested - in the lower abdomen there are complaints of pain in the navel, this pain gradually turns into the right iliac region. The pain is not very strong, but it worries the child constantly. Sometimes vomiting may occur. The temperature is mostly normal, but sometimes it can rise to 37.5 degrees. If the appendix develops purulent processes, then the general condition of the baby can greatly deteriorate. The skin becomes gray, there is a strong thirst, lips and mucous membrane of the mouth become dry. If appendicitis is combined with such diseases as viral hepatitis, measles, dysentery, the temperature can rise to 38-39 degrees, accompanied by vomiting, nausea and a loose stool.
Diagnosis of appendicitis
Instrumental methods of research include computerized tomography using a spiral tamograph. Irrigoscopy is also performed (fluoroscopy with contrast substance). Ultrasound can be used, but the accuracy of the result is not accurate. Very often the diagnosis can be made erroneously, more often the error arises in the direction of undetected inflammation.
Important in the diagnosis is the examination of the surgeon. He asks the patient about the symptoms, also examines the patient. For the symptom of Shchetkin-Blumberg, if the palpation sharply take away the hand, the pain intensifies. Aaron's symptom, when pressing on the area of the epigatrium, pain appears in the right side. Confirm the diagnosis can blood and urine.Due to the individual features of the appendix, appendicitis are absolutely accurate precisely difficult to diagnose. To date, there is only one method for an accurate indication of the presence or absence of a disease, this is a laparoscopy. Laparoscopy is a surgical study in which a small incision is introduced into the abdominal cavity of an optical device and with its help the internal organs are examined.
Treatment of appendicitis
A conservative way to treat appendicitis is impossible, treatment is performed only by surgical intervention. If there is a suspicion that the appendix has become inflamed, the child should immediately be hospitalized in the surgery department. Doctors conduct a survey, according to which the diagnosis of appendicitis is either confirmed or rejected. If the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient is given an immediate operation called appendectomy. The operation consists in removing the sore process by the surgeon. Before the operation, the patient needs to be prepared. This training consists of the stages:
- Purification of the stomach. Before the operation, the patient should not eat anything. If the patient's condition allows, the stomach is washed. If the patient has had multiple vomiting, then rinsing is not carried out, since the stomach is empty.
- Cleaning of the intestine. On the advice of a doctor, the patient is sometimes treated with a bowel cleanser. In this case, the usual cleansing enema is used.
- Preparation for anesthesia. Before the beginning of the operation with the relatives of the child, an anaesthesiologist, who is responsible for anesthetizing the patient, must definitely talk. The doctor needs to know about the patient's health, whether anesthesia has already been applied in his life. An anesthesiologist is interested in whether the child is intolerant of any medications. Each child is selected individual type of anesthesia, depending on the characteristics of the body.
Prevention of appendicitis
There is no specific prevention of this disease. It is recommended to eat right, lead a healthy lifestyle, temper your body and carry out activities that strengthen immunity.