Anorexia in childrenAnorexia is a lack of appetite, a partial or complete refusal of food, which leads to the emergence of various concomitant diseases (endocrine, somatic, neurological, mental, oncological) and to weight loss. The patient quickly loses weight, he has vomiting, nausea. A person with anorexia feels like after overeating after the smallest meal. This term also refers to the disease of the nervous system - anorexia nervosa. This disease occurs as a result of the patient's impetuous desire to lose weight, so he refuses to eat. Despite the exhaustion of the body, the child will not complain about the dangerous symptoms, because he is convinced of his own fullness. Anorexia can also be a sign of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, nervous and endocrine system, mental disorders.

Causes of anorexia

There are many reasons why anorexia can develop. It can be diabetes mellitus, anemia, drug addiction, alcoholism, thyrotoxicosis, anemia, intoxication, various infections, anxious phobias, depression, immunological and hormonal disorders. Recently, adolescent anorexia nervosa has spread. Basically, patients with this form of anorexia have anxiety disorders of the psyche. After anorexia becomes clinical, body weight rapidly decreases, food intake is disturbed, enterocolitis and gastritis occur. With anorexia nervosa, it seems to the patient that he is prone to obesity, he displays dissatisfaction with his body, his physical form. Therefore, patients with mental anorexia begin to starve themselves with hunger, excessive physical exertion, stiff diets, while body weight is rapidly declining. Losing weight and lack of appetite may be accompanied by symptoms of depression. The child becomes depressed, passive, he often has a bad mood, a pessimistic mood, insomnia.

Symptoms of anorexia

The most important symptom of this disease is a significant weight loss of the child - more than fifteen percent of the norm, a decrease in appetite. Adolescent girls express anorexia in the violation of the menstrual cycle. In patients, there is general weakness, arrhythmia, amenorrhea, disturbed sleep, muscle spasms. Children who have anorexia nervosa, constantly think that they are too full, their self-esteem is low, depends on weight. If you do not start anorexia treatment in time, the patient can reach the dystrophy of the internal organs - the cachectic stage, and this can lead to death. One of the important factors is that the patient often fetters from medical personnel, from close people the methods and symptoms of weight loss. You should know that the initial stage of anorexia nervosa is characterized by complexes about its excess weight, as well as taking active measures to reduce it.

Anorexia causes cardiac arrhythmia. Cardiac arrhythmia due to the lack of magnesium, potassium and other minerals and vitamins can cause dizziness, fainting, and in some cases, sudden heart failure. May deteriorate the skin of the child, it becomes pale, dry, hair falls out, the structure of the nails is broken. The endocrine and digestive system is affected - in the stomach there are severe pains, metabolism is disrupted, constipation, amenorrhea, hormonal failures. In addition, anorexia have serious consequences - the depression that occurs with this disease can bring the patient to suicide.

Diagnostic anorexia

Diagnostic anorexia основана на тщательном обследовании больного ребенка, сбора информации от самого ребенка и от его родителей. Так же важную роль имеет визуальный осмотр, ребенок имеет чрезмерно низкую массу тела, особенно в том случае, если заболевание длилось длительный период времени.

Treatment of anorexia

To treat anorexia, especially the nervous one, should be carried out in a complex way. At the outset, you need a general somatic state, cognitive psychotherapy, behavioral therapy. It is necessary to take serious measures to restore body weight. The patient needs psychotherapy in order to make it easier for him to leave negative thoughts, change his behavior, and learn to adequately perceive his body. In some cases, antidepressants may be used to treat this disease. A sick child should be given emotional care, encouraged to return to the previous mass of the body, to support it in every possible way. Restore nutrition in anorexia should be gradual. First you need to take low-calorie food, in small doses, after a while you need to eat more nutritious food, gradually increasing the dose.

If the endocrine system is affected, hormone therapy can be prescribed, but only after normal body weight is restored. If a child has anorexia nervosa, then it is necessary first to remove the phobic anxiety disorder by taking the necessary medication and psychotherapy. After carrying out such measures, the child can improve his appetite, gradually the body weight will be restored. In addition to the main treatment, patients are recommended to take vitamins B, E, C, A. Food should be easily digestible and high-calorie.

Prevention of this disease

Infants need to correctly introduce complementary foods. At the same time, it is not necessary to insist on one dish, it is better to offer several options so that the baby himself can choose what he likes best. If the child is too lethargic, then do not insist on eating. In adolescence, children should be interviewed and explained that a full and proper nutrition is very important for them.