Your baby has already celebrated his first birthday. At this age, he becomes an active pioneer, and parents only need to help the baby by engaging in the cognitive process. The psychologist Larisa Zakharova tells about what and how to develop the child at the age of one to two years. Show me and tell me
What's new? Approximately 12-18 months of the baby begin to interest a variety of subjects: he is ready to spend hours studying the lids from pots, pencils, tubes from under the creams. But soon the child becomes interested not only in the form, color and taste of objects, but also their purpose, and the baby hurries with his new toys to parents for explanations.
How to react? Do not take from the kid a new thing, saying that a bowl or a brush for a coat is not a toy. The child is moved by curiosity, he is open to the knowledge of the world, and by such actions parents sooner or later will destroy the child's natural desire to learn the unknown. Of course, if the object is dangerous (small pieces can swallow small parts, the frame for photos can be broken and cut, etc.), then it's worth distracting the kid's attention and unnoticed to take it. However, if the child is interested in a "neutral" thing, it is better to show the baby how to use it, giving simple explanations.
On a walk try to talk more with the baby, explaining what is happening around. For example, when the kid picked up the fallen leaf from the ground, instead of screaming: "Come on, it's mud! Dirty! ", Say:" This is a leaf that fell from a tree, look how big and yellow it is. Let's put it back on the ground, because it's dirty and you can get dirty. " So you will instill in your child the understanding that not everything that comes to hand, you need to grab. And on the other hand - do not beat the desire to explore the world around.First friends
What's new? In the second year of life, the child begins to be interested in other children. At this age, children do not play together, they play "next door", so they are not talking about friendship yet. However, the beginnings of friendship are already outlined, and the ability of the child to establish contact with peers will largely depend on these first experiences with children.
How to react? It is too early to give a nursery. The baby will suffer from separation from the mother and will not get any pleasure from communicating with the children. Moreover, if the child is offended, he can not yet stand up for himself or competently settle the conflict, and this can develop a child's fear of other children or engender aggression. However, the experience of social communication is necessary for a child, and at this age the sandbox will be an ideal option. Here, children under the supervision of parents learn to communicate, share toys, concede and master the first lessons of joint games. Communication with the support and guidance of parents will lay the necessary social skills in children, the kid will not be afraid to talk to other children, get acquainted, play, gradually learn to draw closer to people and make friends.The assistant is growing!
What's new? At the age of about one year the baby begins to repeat the actions of the parents. Achieving success, the child feels satisfaction, strength, power and poses new tasks. The next stage will be imitation of adults in their homework: the child tries to feed the dog, put the laundry in the washing machine, sweep the floor, etc. The Kid imitates the actions of the parents, thus joining the adult world.
How to react? Often, moms drive away the baby when he tries to help with the household - with his awkward attempts the child rather creates additional problems than helps. But the first impulses of the child to help in homework - this is the ideal moment to teach the child to be neat and instill a love for work. Take advantage of it! Of course, all over again everything will go out ineptly, "at random", parents will have to help the child, sometimes completely redoing the work for the baby. But the efforts are worth it: after several repetitions the child will learn the necessary skills, and you will feel real help. So, if you see that the child, after you, wants to wipe the dust or collect toys in a box, encourage it, praise it and next time call for help.
For the baby cleaning is an exciting game, and right now it can be easily taught in a game form to homework. And then in a few years you will not have to force the child to clean the bed or take out the garbage.World of Art
What's new? It's time to buy finger paints, an album for drawing, pencils and crayons. Very soon your baby will try to create rock carvings on the wallpaper and doors, so hide the pens and markers away from the child and give them out only during the home drawing lessons.
How to react? The child is still difficult to express their emotions, but painting will help to reveal the inner world, making it richer and brighter. First, the drawings will look like the absurd abstractions of postmodern artists, but will gradually begin to take on more concrete outlines. Drawing is an incredibly useful activity: it develops fine motor skills, coordination of movements, thinking, attention, imagination, imagination and helps the child to see the world in all varieties of colors. Moreover, an experienced psychologist will be able to determine the mental state of the baby by what colors and images the baby prefers. Therefore, drawing should take a special place in the list of activities of the child. Even in the absence of artistic talent, this will be extremely useful, so parents should try to instill in their children a love of painting from the "mild nails". Draw yourself, depicting on a white sheet of plants, animals, people. Gradually, you can involve the baby, giving him complete freedom of action, and sometimes directing the child's hand - carefully, so that the child does not cause a protest. Years to 1.5-2 you can try to draw with stencils, which need to be traced, and then painted over. The main condition is that such exercises should never be forced. If the baby is ten minutes tired of drawing - do not insist.Manifestations of kindness
What's new? At the age of about one year, children are still too self-centered, they think that the world revolves around them. Gradually, kids begin to notice not only their experiences, but also emotional outbursts of other people. During this period the child is already capable of sympathy.
How to react? Accentuate the attention of the kid to other people's feelings. If on a walk you saw how another child cried and cried, tell your child: "Oh, the boy fell. It hurts! Let's regret it! "Also react if the baby accidentally offends the pet. Children have different sympathy: someone immediately rushes to stroke and kiss the victim, others are more reserved in the manifestation of emotions. Over the years, the kid learns to openly empathize. The main thing that he saw an example of parents who sincerely sympathize with someone else's grief and always come to the rescue. A living example is the best teacher, and at a tender age this is especially true.
Read on this topic:
- About children and good manners
- To channel the energy of the child into a peaceful channel
- Home in any!