Orientating in time is a difficult skill. It is not easy to master them. And how much will successfully master this special science kid, depends on us with you.
Time is a rather complex concept and quite subjective, because in an interesting and fascinating lesson time flies imperceptibly, but on boring - painfully long. But to understand that such a time, at least in general terms and concepts, the baby is necessary, so many methods have been devised to help the child form the basis that will allow him to determine the time in the future. At first the kid realizes that one event precedes the other, he comprehends the basic time concepts quite early, such as "later", "in the morning", "in the evening". This helps him to anticipate and plan, to learn organization and consistency. Then he already understands that in the year four seasons, twelve months, seven days a week, and the day consists of morning, day, evening and night. Wait until the kid learns to navigate in these terms. And only then the child is ready to study the theme "What time?"First step
The best way to make learning accessible to understanding is to talk about the events of each day as they occur. Explain to the child and show that all phenomena in nature occur in order. At the end of the day, make a review of these events, fixing attention on when they occurred, often use words that characterize a particular period: "Yesterday we went to the circus" or "In a minute we will swim" ... So your child will gradually learn in time, structure the past, present and future.
Probably, you have often met your baby, sitting thoughtfully at the threshold in one shoe and without pants. Solve this problem by telling him the sequence of actions with which he still copes heavily. Instead of the phrase: "Get dressed, let's go for a walk!" You can say, for example: "Now we go to the street, put a hat on first, then a fur coat. And then I'll help you put on your shoes. " The kid will be easier, because he will know what is behind what follows. You can also orient the baby in other everyday activities. Let's say that the phrase "I read to you later" can be replaced with more detailed information: "First we'll have lunch, then we'll wash ourselves, and after that I'll read you a book." Then the child already understands that before reading he has to do two things. By the age of 4, the child already has basic time concepts and starts actively using them in his speech. Help him correctly apply these definitions, correcting the misuse of individual words. Usually the child internally understands what the past and the future are, but often confuses "yesterday" and "tomorrow" in a speech. Ask the kid about the plans, be interested in the impressions of the past day and watch how successfully the child progresses in understanding the time.Help the baby
- Discuss with the baby the sequence of events occurring during the day, make the schedule, marking out the key moments on it.
- Learn the days of the week with your child.
- Discuss the difference between night and day.
- Help the crumb to remember the seasons, as they succeed each other.
- Help the child to replenish the vocabulary, such concepts as later, today, yesterday, tomorrow, the end of the week, hour, minute, day and night.
- In time, start introducing the baby to the dial. First, it's enough to talk only about the clock, and when the child is comfortable, you can mention minutes and half an hour.
- Watch the sun and the moon, how they succeed each other, how the moon grows for a month and how the sun shines and shines in the summer and winter season, what happens to the trees.
- Often leaf through the photo album, telling the kid about past events. Show him your children's photos, various key events.
- Hang in the bedroom, in the corridor, in the kitchen homemade posters, where you will draw a sequence of actions. For example, on the first poster: a T-shirt, pantyhose, then trousers and a sweater; on the second - boots, gloves, then a hat and a fur coat; on the third - a plate with the first, a plate with the second, then a saucer with dessert and a glass with compote.
To understand the sequence of events is to take an important step in the development of logic. It is much easier to get acquainted with the time when it is clearly and tangibly. Time becomes more real when there are various pictures in front of the eyes, introducing the baby to already known phenomena. Create a game "mode of the day." Cut out the necessary pictures with the image of usual actions, such as waking up, a morning toilet, breakfast, etc. From a cardboard make a beautiful dial with bright arrows. Then, along with the baby, distribute the pictures in the correct order. Arrange the clock in a prominent place and, by moving the arrows at the right time, encourage the child to act corresponding to the marked picture. Another game can teach a baby to better determine the time of the day. Divide the dial into two (day and night) parts and paint with the right colors, placing the moon and stars on one side, and the other sun. Choose the right pictures and ask the baby to arrange them on the "day" and "night" side, based on the actions depicted on them. By 3.5-4 years, you can give the child assign tasks in order, for example, cards with the image of chicken, eggs and chicken. When a child can easily distribute simple actions in the right sequence, the task can be complicated by a larger number of cards or more complex material. Instead of cards, family photos can help you, which you can examine and lay out in the right order. Reading books, games in which there are temporary concepts, studying thematic verses will help you in training.The third step is the days of the week and the months
When discussing with the preschooler the plans for the next week, use the name of the days as often as possible. First, the child will find it hard to understand that every day has its own "name". But gradually, having become acquainted with these names, he will be able to remember them. Find some songs or rhymes where the days of the week are mentioned, and apply them in training. Some names of the days of the week correspond to such concepts as the second, middle, fourth, etc. Such associations will allow the baby to better navigate and quickly remember the sequence and "names" of the days. Place a large schedule on the wall. Draw the sheet into seven columns, dividing each column into two parts - the first and second half of the day. Talk with the baby about the events that occur daily: every Monday he has a pool in the kindergarten, every Wednesday he goes to music, and every Saturday he visits his grandmother. The assistant pictures will take the necessary places in each section.
To help the child navigate in long periods of time, you can make an independent family calendar for a year. It can mark the birthdays of all family members, vacations, holidays and holidays. Make some cards from cardboard. On them depict the seasons, their signs (leaves, trees, flowers) and people, differently dressed. All this the child will learn, regularly laying out pictures on seasons.Time by time
And, finally, one can not speak of the full mastery of the concept of time without knowing the hours. Here you must have patience, because children rarely master this knowledge before the age of seven. Help the child understand the role of the "small" and "big" shooters. In the beginning, you can explain that the long arrow has more step, just as the pope has more step than the baby. Therefore, the long arrow moves much faster. And the little one moves slowly, but without it it is more difficult to determine the time of the day. She shows the clock. Teach the child to count, familiarize him with writing the numbers. When he will be able to find and recognize the figures in the text, begin to attach the baby to the concept of "how much time". Always pay attention to the child's watch. Install in his room a clock in the shape of a hut or helm, buy a kid a dial with bright moving arrows, let him move them, setting the arrows the same way as on your wall clock. Such assistants will be a good incentive in the ability to distinguish time. Do not try to teach the child all this in one lesson. The kid can determine the time on a small arrow, but with the minutes everything is much more complicated, since the preschooler does not know how to quickly add up. Do not require the child to perform this difficult task.