Pediatric psychologists advise: from an early age talk as much as possible with your baby. According to experts, this helps to establish emotional contact with the newborn and has a beneficial effect on intellectual development. But sometimes mothers ask themselves: what does a child hear before the age of one? And what does he understand from what he has heard? For clarification, we turned to the otolaryngologist, doctor of medical science. Galina Klyuenkova. Before birth
Already in the womb of the mother the baby is able to distinguish the sounds surrounding the pregnant woman. The baby hears the parents' voices, the music playing in the room, the noise of the car's motor, the stories that mom reads aloud, etc. It's interesting that right after birth, the child highlights the mother's voice among the other voices. Moreover, the baby prefers to listen to those songs and poems that he heard before birth, in the mother's belly. All this suggests that the auditory skills are formed before birth.After childbirth
When the baby is born, in the first weeks he hears only loud noises. High sonorous tones attract the child's attention more quickly. That is why newborns react so vividly to the lisping of adults, who, as a rule, are pronounced in a high voice.
By 2-3 months the child begins to hear low, quiet sounds, learns to compare what he has heard with what he has seen, linking the visual and auditory impressions together. Now the baby can wake or frighten sharp, unexpected sounds, and the crumb will cry, showing its displeasure. In the same period, you can see a bright positive reaction on the face of the baby - a smile. And at first the child smiles not in response to the smile of an adult, but in response to the sound of his voice.
In 4-5 months the reaction becomes more turbulent: the baby begins to babble, coo, wiggle the arms and legs. Now the child is already able to understand where the source of sound is located, and turns his head to the voice of an adult. It is noteworthy that the movements of the child during the "conversation" with the parent are synchronized and literally copy the speaker's movements, according to scientists, thus the child is preparing for future mastery of speech skills.
By 6-7 months, the crumb already reacts to his name, and also understands and feels the mood of others. So, if the mother has a joyous face, the child laughs, waiting for answering laughter, smiles, praise. If the adult's face is angry, the kid may get scared and even cry, associating an angry expression with screaming and cursing.
From 9 months, babies develop the ability to imitate heard sounds, repeat some of them, by 10-12 months in the speech of the baby appear the first conscious words: "Mom", "Dad", "Baba", "Kisa", etc. Now the child begins to understand what the adults say, comprehends what he has heard. His speech develops in parallel with hearing.What I hear, I say
Obviously, the child's speech is closely related to his hearing. However, not all parents attach great importance to what and how much their child hears. Moms sometimes do not know what to talk about with a baby, especially since the crumb does not understand even half of the monologues of relatives. Therefore, scanty and rare phrases are dispensed with and thus inhibit the development of the child. After all, it is the constant "hearing" and "seeing" of someone else's speech and stimulates the development of the speech of the baby. The vocabulary of a preschool child is 90% composed of words and phrases heard from parents. Try to talk with a crumb, comment on what you see on a walk, read poems to your child, fairy tales. It is a mistake to believe that a TV can help a child learn speech skills. Studies show that a child should hear and see speech not on the screen, but "live".
Today many mothers and dads begin to teach the child to foreign languages from an early age. Here the development of hearing plays a key role. Children with good hearing are much easier to learn foreign languages, because they catch subtle nuances and differences in the pronunciation of certain sounds. For example, Chinese is a special system of tones, and only people with a good musical ear can learn it. However, even in the quest for the best try to observe the measure - sometimes the child needs to listen and silence.
Professor Lynn Werner from the University of Washington, a specialist in speech and hearing, proved that infants hear all frequencies at the same time. That's why, when reading a book to a child or talking to a baby, parents should turn off the TV, radio or other sources of sound so that the kid does not get distracted by extraneous noise and focuses only on the adult's voice.Something is wrong…
Unfortunately, some children suffer from varying degrees of hearing impairment. Such babies are not so little - 15 newborns out of 1000. True, severe lesions, such as deafness or severe hearing loss, occur only in 0.5% of cases. The reasons for the violations are very different. They are divided into congenital and acquired. Congenital genetic defects and heredity.
Hearing disorders can also occur due to prematurity (birth weight less than 1,500 g), hypoxia, stopping breathing in the baby during childbirth, due to birth trauma, abuse during pregnancy with alcohol, drugs. Sometimes such negative consequences can occur due to infection of the mother during pregnancy with rubella, herpes, flu, toxoplasmosis - diseases that are especially dangerous in the first four months of pregnancy.
However, a child can be born with a good hearing, but lose it (or partially lose it) due to complications after bacterial meningitis, encephalitis, severe measles, mumps, chronic ear inflammation, accidents (various traumas), chemotherapy, ototoxic agents ( especially some antibiotics).
The trouble is that the nonspecialist in the first months of life to recognize hearing impairment in the baby is quite difficult. Even completely devoid of hearing a baby cries at moments of discomfort and can coo, "walk" when he feels good. Therefore, relatives do not suspect that the child may have hearing problems. Only when other children begin to complain more or less sensibly, respond to their own names, fulfill requests, adults may suspect that their baby is not all right with hearing: the child keeps silent all the time, does not respond to requests, loud sounds, music . But even in this case, parents do not always go to the doctor, but they turn to the doctors when the time is already lost.How to find out?
There are various methods for diagnosing and checking the hearing of infants. In some developed countries, all newborns are examined for hearing loss using a special method - registration of otoacoustic emission. With this completely safe and painless method, it is possible to detect hearing impairments even in newborns, checking how the inner ear snail functions.
In addition, the baby's hearing can also be examined using a computerized electroencephaloautiogram, which is carried out under mild anesthesia. The baby is given certain signals, and if hearing is not broken, in the cerebral cortex there are responses. After that, the computer issues a conclusion.
Another method is called "tentative audiometry." It is suitable for older children, who respond to visual signals (pictures, light) and are able to understand where the source of sound is located. If the child is only interested in the image and does not respond to sound stimuli, one can suspect a decrease in hearing.What to do?
Unfortunately, in 90% of cases deafness is irreversible. But hearing impairment is a physical defect, not an intellectual one, and children can quite easily master oral and written speech, learn to read, write, communicate with peers, and in the future go to college, get a job, find a family. Of course, a hearing impaired child needs serious help from relatives. Ideally, the child needs to pick up dentures at the age of up to 6 months, because the best period for mastering speech is from 9 months to 3-4 years. It is important to regularly engage with the guardian, actively develop the baby - and hearing impairments will not become an obstacle on the way to communication and learning of the baby.
Read on this topic:
- Concert for a rattle with an orchestra
- Is there something wrong with the ears?
- Theory of sound