How is the child's memory formed? Can we remember ourselves in infancy? How to teach a child to remember information? In the womb
The kid begins to save memories in his mother's belly. "Science is confirmed: already at the 24th week of intra-uterine life, a tiny man gets a rumor," says Natalia Grünthal, a psychologist at the Perinatal Medical Center, Ph.D. in Psychology. - And on the third day after birth, the baby is visibly enlivened when he heard my mother's voice. This means that the fetus is able not only to perceive information, but also to remember it. Recognition is a primitive form of memory. " In 1986, American scientists conducted a simple experiment. They gave newly born babies to listen to the recording of the voice of two women. One of them was my mother. Hearing a familiar timbre and intonation, the children started sucking their breasts more actively. The same effect on the kids was provided by music, which my mother often listened to during pregnancy.Anatomical features
The human brain consists of nerve cells - neurons. The baby has more of them than an adult. But the main difference in the other: the newborn between the individual nerve cells there are no connections that are formed as the accumulation of life experience. This process begins immediately after the baby's birth. "In the first year of life, the speed of communication between neurons is colossal. The record set at this age will no longer be beaten in the future. This is because the kid learns something new every moment, actively learns the world and makes discoveries every day, "explains Natalia Grünthal. He absorbs a lot of information, but does not remember it. Now he has a more developed right hemisphere, in which the acquired knowledge is only stored. The left hemisphere, which structures the information, matures later.
"But if nature itself provided the kids with everything necessary for active" study ", the potential for birth is different for all. Mental abilities, including the ability of our memory, are inherited to us, "says the psychologist. "However, they can and should be developed."Stages of development of baby memory
Intrauterine period From the 12th week of pregnancy the fetus hears and distinguishes sounds.
1st week of life The newborn gets used to the routine of the day, learns the sounds and smells that precede feeding: the sound of the dishes, the sound of the bottle heater, the smell of warm milk.
1 month Grudnichok learns the voice of the pope and other family members.
1.5 months The kid remembers the grimaces of adults and imitates them in a suitable situation.
2 months Memorizes the experience. If one end of the ribbon is tied to a music phone, and the other end to the baby's leg, he will quickly understand who "conducts the orchestra". Another time, when you see the mobile, it will automatically jerk the foot, even if the ribbon is untied.
3 months Able to remember something, but can not draw conclusions. So, the kid will have to learn to play anew with a new toy, even if it has the same functions as the one to which he is accustomed. But at this age he begins to distinguish some forms.
6 months The kid knows that a familiar object continues to exist, even when it disappears from the visual field, because in his memory remains a visual image. In addition, the child is already aware of the difference between objects of different sizes.
9 months Guess that words have meaning.
1 year Begins to feel the connection between a word and an invisible object.What an election!
In the tummy of a mother, the memory of a child develops through hearing. And let the kid does not see the world, but he hears it and can even taste it. Through the amniotic fluid that fills his mouth and spout, he discerns the taste and smell of food that mom eats. When the baby is born, all five senses are activated. With their help, the child captures information, the meaning of which does not understand. At this stage, he perceives it at the level of emotions. A child only remembers what is useful to him for adaptation to new conditions of existence, which by contrast can be compared to life on another planet. In memory of the baby, only those impressions and images that are often repeated are postponed. All the rest is immediately erased. For the same reason, one and a half year old children who have changed their place of residence completely forget their native language, if nobody talks to them on it.
Our first childhood memories, as a rule, date back to 3 years. But why do not we remember what happened before? The famous Soviet psychologist Lev Semenovich Vygotsky established that the development of so-called semantic memory (memory for facts) is due to the ability of our brain to structure information. There are three forms of thinking. The first and the earliest is the visually-effective thinking that babies possess. A little later, there is figurative thinking, and only by the age of 7 does an abstract logical thinking form. In 3 years, thinking becomes an internal speech: children, like adults, begin to think not only with images, but with sentences. From this moment, babies can structure information and build links between individual events. Of course, the memory of the child begins to develop much earlier, but up to 3 years in it are imprinted mostly only emotions or vivid images. A kid can remember a scene from life or his sensations, but, being unable to put what he sees into words, and consequently, to give memories a meaning, he quickly forgets everything.Two types of memory
Children, as well as adults, have a long-term and short-term memory. Short-term helps us to remember the information right away, but not for long. For example, you can easily remember what you ate for breakfast today, but it's just as easy to forget about it after a few days. Kid also knows this feeling. Important information and the experience gained over the years we store in the barns of long-term memory. "Although babies have almost no life experience, they already have a long-term memory. That's why some people have memories of the earliest childhood, - explains Natalia Grüntal. "Only in children it functions on a different basis." If you ask an adult person to learn a poem and remember it for a long time, he can do it because his memory, as scientists say, is "arbitrary". Simply put, in such cases, he decides what to remember and what does not. In the child's memory some information can also be imprinted for a long time, but not on his own free will, but only because of the child's impressionability. So, for example, the kids from the first time remember the melody they liked, and then reproduce it no worse than an mp3 player.
In an effort to comprehensively develop the baby, many of us often lose sense of proportion. But the perfectionism of parents can completely destroy the child's natural desire to know the world.
The ability to count to 10, according to psychologists, is useful only if this skill can be applied in everyday life. And already to teach the alphabet to a kid 2-3 years does not make sense, because to reading it is not ready yet. "To the child's abilities and psyche to develop harmoniously, the game should remain the main form of education right up to school," recalls Natalia Grünthal. And do not constantly assess the child's success. Leave this function to teachers and society. Mom and Dad are first and foremost loving parents, who can be contacted at any time for help and support.7 Tips for Parents
1 Always give the baby an opportunity to speak. Little children often tell stories in a chaotic order: from right to left and from bottom to top, starting from the middle, continuing with the ending and ending with the string. It's okay, with time the child will necessarily master the simple tricks of the writer.
2 Help the baby set up temporary landmarks. As often as possible, tell the child stories in the past tense and talk about plans for the future.
3 Discuss the fairy tale you read or see the cartoon. If the kid knows that the mother will necessarily ask him which character he liked most and why, he will try to remember what will be discussed in the book or on the screen.
4 Show the baby pictures. If you are going to go in the summer to the sea, find in the family album or magazine images of the sea landscape and the beach.
5 Learn with the baby counts, songs and poems. But this wonderful way to train the memory for the baby should first of all remain a fun game. It is not necessary to arrange forced rehearsals and make round eyes, if the kid forgot a few words.
6 Stimulate all 5 of the baby's feelings, not just sight and hearing.
7 Play as often as possible. For example, ask the kid for 15-20 seconds to memorize the 5 items that you previously put on the tray. Ask him to turn away, remove one item, shuffle the rest. Now ask him to name the missing object.