Usually, in most cases, women turn to a gynecologist because of a feeling of soreness in the lower abdomen. But the indicated syndrome may indicate acute disorders or a pathology that has a neurological origin.
When manifesting pain, especially strong, long in time and intolerable, it is urgent to come to see a doctor.
Causes of lower abdominal pain in women
There are two types of reasons for which the patient has pain - these are functional and organic. For organic reasons are the following:
- application of the IUD;
- diseases of the genital area of the woman - uterine fibroids, torsion of the legs of the egg cyst, ovarian cyst, endometriosis.
- surgical acute disorder, impaired activity of the urinary system, as well as the gallbladder.
- the state of women's health, which is provoked by fertilization (the threat of spontaneous abortion, signs of ectopic pregnancy, placental detachment, soreness associated with medical abortion).
The following are among the functional reasons:
- a condition when the menstrual blood begins to stagnate, which occurs as a result of certain conditions, for example, when the uterus is bent.
- pain, provoked by the onset of ovulation;
- malfunctions of the menstrual cycle.
Pain in the lower abdomen can be stitching and any other.
Inflammation in the uterus and in the ovaries. Usually the inflammation in the designated organs starts acutely. A woman, of course, begins soreness, intoxication symptoms, body temperature rises. In the presence of such a condition as adnexitis, soreness occurs either in the right or in the left corner of the abdomen, if endometrium appears, the soreness appears in the middle of the abdomen.
When inflammation in the appendages during the study of the vagina can detect severely diseased ovaries, in the case of endometritis specialist can identify the uterus, the neck of which is strongly softened, it is painful when plucked. Endometritis and salpingo-oophoritis in chronic form is characterized by dull pain.
When probing the ovaries, you can determine the sensitive and very tight formation. Therapy for diseases of sexual intercourse of inflammatory etiology is the appointment of vitamin complexes to the patient, antibiotic means of infusion treatment, anti-inflammatory suppositories.
Endometriosis is genital. The uterus, the space located behind the cervix, the appendages can be affected. This disease is the spread of cells that are similar in structure to the endometrium. They spread far beyond the uterus. Soreness occurs before menstruation and even more increases during them.
In this condition, the pain manifests itself particularly strongly in the middle of the lower abdomen, with retrocervical endometriosis - the pain is felt behind the pubis, with the subordinate - in the groin. If there is a sufficiently serious adhesion process in the small pelvis in the presence of such a condition, this significantly worsens the soreness.
In addition to soreness, the patient has a disturbed menstrual cycle, changes in the nature of the discharge that appears between menstruation, and sometimes even female infertility. Treat this condition with the use of hormonal drugs, sometimes it is recommended to carry out the operation.
Ovarian apoplexy. This condition occurs in the middle of the cycle, it is associated with ovulation. When the main follicle bursts, the egg vessels are severely damaged and injured and bleeding occurs in the abdominal cavity and in the tissue of the organ. Such a state can arise as a result of sexual intercourse, it is also provoked by any high-intensity physical load.
Bleeding, which manifests itself inside, always causes severe pain, which is localized in the place of the diseased ovary. At the same time, signs of posthemorrhagic anemia are manifested (the skin becomes very pale, a woman can lose consciousness, the blood pressure decreases). Urgent surgery is recommended. It is impossible to delay, because such a state is dangerous for a woman's life.
Uterine fibroids. With uterine myomas, the patient may exhibit soreness in the lower abdomen by squeezing organs located in the neighborhood and in tumors that are large in size and when a submucosal myoma is present.
When this angle is born, the pain has a cramping character, they are accompanied by severe bleeding, clearly expressed. And in one case, and in another case it is recommended to urgently conduct the operation.
Torsion of the legs of the egg cyst. It can happen in heavy work, with sharp inclinations. If the torsion occurred 60 degrees, this causes a violation of the venous outflow to the leg, the cyst begins to actively swell, and the pains become aching, not sharp. If at 360 degrees, then the arterial blood can not normally reach the cyst.
The following symptoms are manifested - signs of body intoxication, terrible pains on the side of the cyst, pain cramping, temperature increases, the patient takes a forced position. In this case, it is necessary to perform an emergency operation - the acid is removed, but this is not done by untwisting the legs.
Appendicitis. This state does not start dramatically. Initially, the patient's body temperature increases, pains begin to be felt in the epigastric region, then begin to move to the right side of the ileum.
The person becomes weak, he has signs of intoxication. Vomiting, upset of the stool, loss of appetite may occur. If the treatment is not performed in a timely manner (usually an operation is performed to remove the appendix), then the condition can be fatal, since appendicitis can become a peritonitis.
Ectopic pregnancy. This condition is dangerous and serious. It is said about it when a fertilized egg is attached not in the uterus, but outside it. Usually it can be a fallopian tube. But also implantation can occur in the abdominal cavity, in the ovary. Disease in tubal abortion has paroxysmal pain, which manifests itself periodically.
They arise in the groin. If the tube breaks, then the woman feels the most terrible, acute pain. Soreness spreads to the rectum, to the vagina and to the area above the collarbone. Ectopic pregnancy causes severe intra-abdominal bleeding, so urgent surgery is needed, as in this case it is about saving the life of the patient.
Distinguishing symptoms of this condition - the pregnancy test shows a positive result, the months are delayed, bloody discharge may appear during an attack. Remember that with the smallest suspicions of having this condition, you should immediately contact a doctor.
Pyelonephritis and cystitis. Inflammation in an organ such as the bladder is characterized by the manifestation of cutting, acute pain in the area located above the pubis. Pain can be much more powerful when urinating. A disease like pyelonephritis provokes soreness in the lower back and in the lower abdomen.
Inflammation of the kidneys and bladder provokes an increase in body temperature with impaired urination. When you pass the tests in them, you can find symptoms of the inflammatory process in the body. Therapy of both conditions is carried out with the use of nitrofurans and antibiotics.
Cholecystitis This condition is characterized by inflammation in the gallbladder. Usually it occurs because of the presence of concrements in the gallbladder. The disease is acute enough, it is characterized by vomiting, nausea, increased body temperature, itching of the skin of the skin due to the fact that the level of bilirubin rises.
Also, in the right upper quadrant, severe pain can occur, and, of course, the pain is felt in the lower abdomen. Pain will be given back, under the collarbone, in the lower back, after eating, the pain becomes much stronger. Therapy of this condition is the use of drugs that contribute to an improved bile flow, and a diet is also prescribed. If large stones are found in the gallbladder, then a mandatory operation is prescribed.
Causes of pain before and after menstruation
The main reason for the presence of pain in the lower abdomen before the onset of menstruation is algodismenorea. This condition usually occurs in young women. It is associated with the fact that there is an establishment of a hormonal background, and the sexual organs are still actively developing. Also, tenderness can arise due to uterine flexion, endometriosis, PMS and inflammation in MT organs.
If the soreness occurs after the menstrual period has ended, then this may be due to uterine endometriosis, with endometritis, which occurs in a chronic form, with an endometrioid cyst, whose size after menstruation greatly increases.
Pain in ovulation
Before ovulation, the egg ripens. When the walls of the follicle, which ripens, are stretched to the maximum, the woman can feel painful.
Also, pain can also occur with ruptures of the vessels that are located at the base of the follicle that leaves. As a result of the rupture, the liquid enters the epithelium, which provides irritation, the uterus contracts and causes soreness of varying intensity. Sometimes after ovulation in the secretions there may be blood impurities, this is provoked by a decrease in the number of estradiol, not an essential endometrial detachment.
Pain during and after ovulation may indicate the presence of one of the gynecological diseases.
Pain in the abdomen after intercourse
This kind of pain can arise as a result of frustration. The pain is aching and proceeds in parallel with the psychological dissatisfaction. In addition, pain after sex can manifest itself with the result of a variety of diseases - the presence in the small pelvis of adhesions, the chronic form of adnexitis, cervicitis, endometritis, endometriosis, the presence of tumors of the genital organs. Also, pain can occur if the vagina is damaged due to the large size of the penis.
Acute pain after sex can proceed in parallel with soreness in the perineum, genitals and inguinal folds. Also, it may indicate that the ovarian cyst was broken or the ovary itself.
Often the pain arises because of the presence of polyps in women and erosion. They are capable of bleeding after sex. Such formations can cause malignant tumors, they must be treated. Pain after intercourse, which is combined with bleeding, can be triggered by the presence of changes that occur in the cells of the uterine neck and uterine cancer. These states can be determined by analyzing the vaginal discharge, as well as using some additional tests.
The most common cause of pain are diseases of infectious etiology - chlamydia and other conditions that are transmitted sexually.
Pain in the abdomen during pregnancy
The threat of spontaneous abortion. If there is a threat of early interruption of labor until the 22nd week, painful or aching pains appear in the abdomen. They become a symptom of uterine contractions, along with them can also manifest and spotting. Therapy is aimed at ensuring that pregnancy is preserved. Usually a woman is recommended bed rest, taking hormonal drugs and drugs with spasmolytic action.
Premature detachment of the placenta to be located normally. This disorder occurs in parallel with not severe pain in the lower abdomen when bearing, if the placenta detachment occurred in the lower part. This can cause external bleeding. It is recommended to conduct cesarean section.
Analyzes that are recommended for the diagnosis of pain in the lower abdomen
Since with the manifestation of soreness in the lower abdomen there are many reasons capable of provoking this condition, then there are some difficulties in diagnosis. Therefore, the following tests are recommended:
- General blood analysis. It involves counting the number of leukocytes, if they are in an increased amount, then this may indicate an inflammatory process.
- Urinalysis with culture, with examination under a microscope and a test for sensitivity to antibiotic agents (the presence of erythrocytes, leukocytes and bacteria indicates that the urinary tract was involved in the process).
- Laparoscopy. It is conducted in order to look at the pelvic organs and choose the appropriate tactics for managing the disease, if possible, without extended surgery. This type of study is prohibited for persons who have intestinal obstruction and hypovolemic shock.
- Radiographic examination of the abdominal cavity organs. a picture is taken in the position on the side, on the back and standing. Experts through such a research method look at whether there is an obstruction of the intestine, the presence in the abdominal cavity of the combined air at the rupture of the cyst or with internal bleeding.