On the way out: how is your baby born

What happens to the baby during childbirth? How does he feel? Why is he crying so loudly when he was born? Answers to these questions would like to know any mom, and deal with them will help a neonatologist.

When born - the baby decides for himself. It is his endocrine system that triggers the birth mechanism, stimulating the production of the main hormone of genera, oxytocin, in the mother. Normally, this happens when all the systems and organs of the child have already fully prepared for independent life - usually at the 38-40th week of pregnancy. To make the baby's birth go smoothly, the process should be gradual, and therefore the preparation for it begins beforehand, approximately 2 weeks before the crucial day. Under the influence of the hormones of the child's body, in particular, produced by the adrenal cortex, more and more oxytocin is produced in the body of the mother, causing contractions of the uterine muscles, estrogens (they increase the uterine tone) and relaxin (it softens the muscles and ligaments). At the 38th week, the baby's head moves closer to the exit from the uterus, and the expectant mother notices that the stomach has lowered slightly. The uterus is increasingly shrinking - but so far these irregular preparatory fights do not cause discomfort to either the child or the mother and usually go unnoticed for them.

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First step

Birth - stress and hard work for a little man. The walls of the native dwelling where the kid spent 9 months suddenly start to put pressure on his dweller, he is irresistibly pulled somewhere down where he has to squeeze through a narrow meandering labyrinth, and in addition, in the process of giving birth, the supply of oxygen and nutrition now and then ceases. As in an adult at moments of physical and mental stress, the child's stress levels of catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine) rise sharply during childbirth. Fortunately, the wise nature has provided for a number of protective measures to facilitate the baby's appearance. So, along with catecholamines in the child's body, endorphins and enkephalins are intensively produced - substances that create an anesthetic effect and help the body mobilize forces.

During the first period of childbirth, when the cervix is ​​opened under the action of the cervix, the baby is engaged in that, gradually, he jerks down from the uterus cavity to the entrance to the small pelvis. Moving head first and pressing it like a ram, the child travels a distance of only a few centimeters, but this path takes as long as 6-12 hours. This slow pace is very important, because if the process takes place too quickly, it threatens the child with birth trauma.

With each fight, the crumb feels the pressure of the uterus and abdominal muscles. But, due to the fact that the child is surrounded by amniotic fluid, this pressure softens. When the uterus contracts, the placenta contracts, and the flow of blood to the baby for the duration of the contraction (and in the midst of childbirth it lasts up to 1 minute) stops. To compensate for the lack of oxygen, the baby's heart begins to beat more often - up to 180 beats per minute instead of 140 at rest. At the moment of tension of the uterus, the baby stops, then to make another "step" forward.

Steep route

Immediate exit of the baby into the big world occurs in the period of attempts, which comes after the cervix is ​​fully opened. This stage of labor is considered to be the most laborious for both the child and the mother. The woman is actively pushing, straining the muscles of the abdomen, and the baby's head under the influence of fights passes through the small pelvis and enters the sex slit. When the child moves through the narrow space of the small pelvis, the bones of his skull are located on each other, adapting to a twisty route. "Seals" and the trunk of the baby, primarily the chest. On the crown and occiput, swelling of the subcutaneous fat tissue is formed - a birth tumor that protects the baby's brain from pressure. In the most common development of events, the back of the baby, first the temples, the forehead and the face facing downwards, towards the floor, are shown first outward. After the birth of the entire head, the baby turns 90 °, facing the mother's hip, and the hangers come out in turn - the lower and upper. Now we can assume that the main work has already been done: after the birth of the head (the largest part of the child's body) and the shoulders, the trunk and legs leave without problems.

During childbirth, mom and baby work synchronously. So, at the initial stage of childbirth contractions force the child to move towards the exit from the uterus, and he, in turn, presses his head on the cervix, revealing it from the inside. During the period of exile, the mother tenses, straining the muscles of the abdomen, and the baby is pushing the back of the neck to the pelvic floor more and more, making the attempts more frequent and intense.

To judge the state of the crumbs during labor, doctors are helped by cardiotocography. It allows you to assess the frequency of the baby's heartbeat, as well as the tone of his mother's uterus. The rhythm of the child's heartbeat during childbirth is constantly changing. But doctors, knowing about what changes should occur in the norm, can immediately react if violations occur. For example, in the period of attempts, the pulse becomes less frequent, when the head of the child passes the narrowest part of the small pelvis of the mother. Movement on this site normally takes only a few minutes, but if the baby is delayed and the heartbeat remains slow for too long, then the child needs urgent help: caesarean section or the imposition of obstetric instruments.

Welcome!

The baby meets his birth with a loud cry - this is the reflex response to the change in the surrounding conditions (temperature, lighting, etc.) and the first arrival of oxygen into the lungs. Because of this, they straighten out, and out of them comes the fetal fluid that filled them before birth. The deeper the first breath, the more the newborn screams. It is no coincidence that the loud crying of a baby is considered one of the important indicators of his health. If there is no screaming or it is barely audible, then the baby has trouble breathing and needs emergency help. A healthy newborn breathes often, actively moves handles and legs, his heart beats fast (more than 100 beats per minute). He screams indignantly, if to check the reflexes he is tickled with heels; sneezes and coughs when cleaning the nose and mouth.

As soon as the baby comes into the world, a whole barrage of new feelings hits him. This is the touch of human hands (before the crumb felt only the splash of amniotic fluid), bright light and loud sounds, too sharp after darkness and silence in the uterus. And ... the cold - after all, in the uterine cavity the temperature is 37-38 ° C, and in the block - "only" 23-24 ° C.

As soon as a baby comes into the world, it is immediately put on the breast of his mother and drops a few drops of colostrum into his mouth. It's great if next to the newborn at this moment is and dad. The closeness of parents (of course, especially of the mother) in the first minutes of life is very important, because at the subconscious level, the whole situation of birth is postponed in the child's memory. The atmosphere, emotions, sensations with which a little man crosses the threshold of a new world, can affect his psychological health in the future. It is no accident that psychologists and biologists consider imprinting - the perception of the first life impressions (tactile, auditory, visual, etc.) -principal for proper development. It is thanks to these first minutes that the newborn baby remembers his mother and from now on unmistakably recognizes her, immediately calms down as soon as she takes him in her arms.

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