Motor development of children

Breast age

83. During the first year of life, the baby's motor functions develop extraordinarily quickly.

At the end of the neonatal period, during which the life processes gradually stabilize, but the dynamics of the development of motor functions is still low, the infancy begins, lasting about a year. At this time, the body weight increases, its proportions change, new movements and skills appear every day.

84. The motor development of a healthy child proceeds according to a certain pattern and is a measure of physical and mental development.

To assess the correctness of development, certain periods of the child's life are established, during which individual characteristic reactions should appear. However, the development of each child has individual characteristics and the timing of the appearance of motor functions may differ slightly, therefore, these criteria, like all other norms that are of a recommendatory nature, have only an orienting significance.

85. So, the indicative indicators of the motor development of the child in the first half of the year are as follows:

By the end first month life decreases muscle tension, disappears the pose, characteristic of the fetus, with bent handles and legs.

On the second month the child performs aimless turns of the head to one side, bends the trunk, chaotic waving handles and legs.

On third month life movements of the head and back are gradually becoming more calm, in the position on the abdomen the child can hold his head, lifting everything above the chest and back. This ability appears a little earlier in children who regularly spread on the stomach, which, according to some pediatricians, develops the organs of vision and the ability to observe

The development of the eye muscles allows us to fix a longer and longer look at the shiny objects located at a distance of three meters, and a little later the baby begins to follow the moving objects and turn in the direction of the sound. The child can already examine the raised legs and hands.

During more and more frequent and longer periods of wakefulness, the kid expresses joy when he sees or heard a loved one - revitalizes, makes sounds, laughs, shakes his hands, as if holding something in them. At this time, unconditioned reflexes of the newborn period disappear: grasping, crawling, protective.

Four-month the child at moments of joy or anger bends the trunk, makes a "bridge", which indicates the development of the muscles of the back. The kid stretches out his hands to the toy, shakes it. In 4-5 months, he can already turn from the back to the barrel, and if he pulls the handles, pulls his forearms and back.

Five-month the kid turns from the back to the stomach, grabs objects suspended over his chest, and soon and located above the head or side. The child grasped the object in a position to hold between the palms first only a few seconds. The next stage in the development of grasping movements is the squeezing of the toy embedded in the hand with the entire palm, but first without the participation of the thumb. The child lets go of the toy, if the next object is put in the other hand.

AT six months the child grabs the fingers of an adult or a wand, sits down and remains in that position for a while, leaning forward strongly.

86. Orientation indicators of motor development in the second half of the year:

Between seventh and ninth month the child learns to sit on his own from the position on his side, and every time he sits longer and with an ever more direct back. Some children, as a rule, those who spend a lot of time on their stomachs, before they learn to sit, begin to crawl on their stomachs, move with their hands, first arched, then backwards and only then creep forward.

These children sit down later than others, and some of them begin to stand by the support before they sit down. It is believed that this order of motor development forms a correct posture.

By the end the sixth month the kid begins to snap things with one hand. Very soon comes the ability to hold simultaneously in each hand on the subject and hold the object to the mouth. This is the beginning of an independent meal.

AT six to seven months ребенок с силой упирается ногами и делает подскоки, если его взять под мышки. AT возрасте около восьми месяцев ребенок умеет самостоятельно хватать по одному предмету в каждую руку, перекладывать их из руки в руку и сознательно бросать. Постепенное развитие мышц руки позволяет к девятому месяцу хватать предметы уже двумя пальцами.

Between eighth and ninth month, если его поставить, малыш стоит у опоры и самостоятельно опускается на колени. Следующий этап подготовки к первым шагам – самостоятельный подъем при помощи опоры, а скоро и первые шажки боком вдоль опоры. AT девять месяцев ребенок начинает передвигаться на коленях.

87. The ability to walk develops gradually between the 9th and the 14th month, in all children in different ways, going through the following stages:
  • moving sideways along the support;
  • forward movement with support under the mouse;
  • moving with support for hands;
  • independent movement.
88. Children learn without outside help for several months.

Some take steps very carefully, others go fast, not paying attention to obstacles, third walk still long prefer crawling.

AT последние месяцы первого года жизни ребенок совершенствует умение хватать, манипулировать пальцами. Малыш трясет предметами, которые держит в руках, стучит предметом о предмет, может поставить два кубика один на другой, держать чашку, из которой пытается пить, и поддерживать бутылочку руками.