Women's milk is unique in its structure, as only it contains the necessary amount of fats, trace elements, vitamins, biologically active substances - enzymes, hormones, immunoglobulins, leukocytes. And in artificial mixtures such components are not present. It's not for nothing that scientists have now made a proposal to ban the use of the term "mother's milk substitute", since it is impossible to produce such a mixture. In addition to a purely practical aspect, there is also the psychological aspect of the indispensability of breastfeeding. It consists in a sense of comfort of the mother and child, the establishment of a mutual understanding in the first days of life. But there are circumstances when breastfeeding is partially or completely prohibited. In such cases, the baby is fed with a mixture, or transferred completely to artificial feeding. When recommend artificial feeding Doctors recommend artificial feeding during severe pregnancy or childbirth, which requires time to recover; taking medications that penetrate into breast milk; infectious diseases of the mother; insufficient milk production from the mother, when control weighing shows a lack of weight gain, and attempts to stimulate lactation are unsuccessful. If there is no possibility, it is constantly next to the baby and breastfeeding, it is not necessary to express or freeze milk, which is then lacking. Before you transfer the child to artificial feeding, try to make the maximum to preserve breastfeeding. Be sure to seek advice from a pediatrician, a speuialist on this issue, neonatologists. Even from a few drops, your baby will receive an invaluable benefit.
Video about when you can start to introduce complementary foods, as well as what foods to give the child:
What are the mixtures for feeding
All products for the replacement of breast milk are divided into adapted and partially adapted. The adapted mixture has the most approximate composition to the composition of human milk. Partially adapted mixture has a partial composition. It is impossible to completely copy a natural product, so it is better to choose fully adapted mixtures. Most producers of such mixtures take cow milk as the basis for preparation, with the exception of soy. There are mixtures made with goat milk. Mixtures for children can be fresh and acidophilic (dairy). Parents are mistaken, equating the acidophilic mixture with kefir. After all, yogurt is an unadapted sour-milk product, a complementary meal. According to the consistency, the mixture can be dry (powdered) and liquid (finished). In general, parents prefer dry products as they have a long shelf life, a lower weight and a price. But liquid mixtures also have their advantages, the most important of which is that they are not needed. This will help to eliminate the error in calculating the proportion, for example, during night feeding. The mixture may also be serum and casein. This is due to the fact that protein in human milk is presented in larger quantities by whey protein, and less quantity of casein. It is recommended that children give mixtures with the same ratio. Baby formula can be standard and specialized. Standard - adapted product, which is based on cow milk. Specialized - mixtures for children of a special category: premature, suffering from allergies, small weight, having food intolerance, regurgitation, stool delay etc. This group is appointed by a pediatrician, who constantly monitors the state of the child's health. Particular care should be taken for mixtures made on a soybean basis. Usually, the doctor prescribes this product when the baby is anemia (anemia), provoked by iron deficiency. Soy mixes can be fed to the baby from three months. To specialized mixtures also belong purely medical (for example, protein hydrolysates). In them, the protein is subjected to thorough pretreatment. Such products are prescribed by the doctor to allergy sufferers, especially for whom this mixture was developed. To the type of mixtures are "the second" and "subsequent". These are new in our country, designed for children from six months. The name of this product usually contains the number "2". Such mixtures are partially adapted. Specialists believe that children, age from six months, this product will be enough.
Mixtures for breastfeeding a child from birth to 6 months:
Blends for the child from birth to year:
How to choose a mixture for bottle feeding
When choosing any mixture, it is necessary to pay special attention to the ingredients in its composition. Proteins If the doctor gives a recommendation to supplement, or completely transfer the child to artificial feeding, it should be asked which protein in the mixture should be dominant. Prefer a mixture with a serum fraction. Fats Female milk contains lactose, which is more than 90% carbohydrates. For a healthy child, such a composition will be completely acceptable. Some substitutes, like lactose, contain glucose polymers. Mixtures containing sucrose should be avoided. Iron The amount of this element can be changed. If the child is healthy, then it makes no sense to feed him with mixtures containing high levels of iron, then he can regurgitate, the character of the stool changes, and the taste of the product deteriorates. To all this, iron - an excellent environment for the dwelling of intestinal bacteria, which is fraught with the emergence of dysbiosis. The choice of a mixture can be influenced by two factors. The first factor is that the pediatrician assigns it based on weight indicators, the developmental features of the child, the susceptibility to allergies, the circumstances of pregnancy and the way the delivery was carried out, etc. The second factor is the close observation of the child's reaction. If the mixture is suitable, the baby will eat it with pleasure, if not - will spit it out, regurgitate, do not give yourself to feed. Then the mixture will have to be replaced. Changing the mixture without a cause is not recommended. But there are situations when it is necessary: when the child simply does not tolerate this mixture and it manifests itself in the form of an allergic reaction; the child reached 5-6 months, and it is necessary to go to the second stage, and if this mixture is well tolerated by the child, it is desirable that the next mixture was the same producer, but for the right age; the emergence of allergies, regurgitation, etc., requiring the introduction of a therapeutic mixture (but only on the advice of a pediatrician); change of therapeutic mixtures adapted, after complete recovery of the child. Recall that when breastfeeding before the beginning of complementary foods, you do not need to give the baby extra water, and when feeding the mixture completely or partially, it is permissible, and water does not enter the total volume of food. How to prepare a mixture First, carefully read the instructions. In preparation, do not step back from it a single step. With an excess of powder, the mixture will be supersaturated with nutrients, which subsequently leads to regurgitation, unstable stools, excess weight. If you miscalculate, and take the powder is less than the norm, then the mixture will turn out to be low-calorie, which is also not good. In this case, the baby will remain hungry, will be capricious, begin to sleep badly and add little weight. When making the mixture, use boiled water. The final product ideally should have a temperature of 36-37 C. To get this temperature, after boiling, cool the water to 50-60 C, pour into a bottle. Then you need to measure a special spoon (that there was no excess) the right amount of powder, and pour it into the water, quickly stir until it completely dissolves. To prepare the mixture, you do not need special utensils, this can be done right in the bottle. Turn the bottle down, but do not shake it. The properly prepared mixture should flow down a thin trickle, then flow out by drop in a second. Then drip a couple of drops of your queen - the temperature of the contents should be close to body temperature, and almost not felt. If the mixture is hot, stop the bottle in cold water. If the baby is fast asleep, leaving a little mixture in the bottle, do not store the remains until the next feeding, it is better to pour them.
How to Feed Breastmilk Substitutes
The amount of the mixture needed by a child depends on its weight, how fast it has metabolism, growth, its physique and appetite. Sometimes the baby will eat more portions, sometimes less, as recommended by the pediatrician. For a very small baby, the volume of food should always be determined with the doctor. If your baby does not complain about health, has a good appetite, you can try feeding him from this calculation - 125-150 ml / 1 kg of weight. For example, the daily volume of food for a child weighing 4.5 kg will be 600-700 ml. Do not think that the baby will eat that much since birth. In the first week, the baby usually needs only 30-60 ml with one feeding. A month-old baby will eat 90-120ml at one time. Children age from 2-6 months, need portions 120-160 ml, and from 6-12 months - up to 240 ml, depends on the volume of complementary foods (for 1 day it is about 3-4x bottles). If the baby is thirsty, give him a bottle of water if you refuse to offer the mixture. Since the mixture is more concentrated than milk, the child will need at least 1 bottle of water per day. (Breastfed babies do not need additional drinking). Most parents worry about whether their tiny food consumes enough food. It is not difficult to determine this. If the mixture is not receiving enough, the baby does not gain weight, does not allocate enough urine, has a general, wrinkled skin, and behaves restlessly. If you suspect a baby in overeating, you should pay attention to how much the baby burps after feeding, or there are colicky pains in the tummy (you can recognize them by pulling up the legs to the tense abdomen), the speed of weight gain. A small lover overeat, you can help in this way: a portion of the mixture should be reduced, but to feed the baby more often. Having fed, help the child to regurgitate air. If the child asks for food at the wrong time, give him a bottle of water. Practice shows that kids love to drink from 150-200 mililitrovyh bottles with a wide neck, a protective cap, separate nipples. Feeding the baby artificially partially or completely, you will need from 4 to 8 of these bottles. One package of dry mixture (400-450 g) leaves for the preparation of 3-4 liters of the finished product. If you will feed the baby only from a bottle, for the first six months you will need from 42 to 48 packs of the mixture. When preparing the mixture, strictly follow the instructions and do not use other measures, only those that are enclosed in the packaging. Your baby will probably not like it if you leave it alone. First, he can choke, well, who likes to dine without a company? Is not it? How to properly introduce complementary feeding for artificial feeding With artificial feeding, the lure is administered at the age of 4.5-5 months, and in case of breast feeding it is 0.5-1 month later. The reason for this - the presence of a significant amount of "foreign" substances in human milk, which allows the child to adapt to the "alien" diet. It should be noted that the time of introduction of complementary foods - individually, and installed by a pediatrician who observes the baby. The lure of a small number of foods begins, gradually increasing. On the first day of complementary feeding, the baby is given 0.5 teaspoon of a new product, and for ten to twelve days increase the portion to the volume of one feeding. Lure is given before the mixture, and with a spoon. It is forbidden to enter two new products at one time. Dishes for complementary foods should be puree, do not contain small pieces, so that the child was not difficult to swallow. Over time, it will be necessary to give more dense lure, later - more dense food. How important is the contact of mother and child with artificial feeding We have already talked about the presence of a tactile contact between mother and baby while breastfeeding. The presence of this contact is very important in the first months of the child's life, as he favors the perception of the baby around the world, helps him share his emotions. A kid who is on artificial nutrition needs more attention to himself, a baby breast-feeding. Remember this. When buying a crumb, do not rush it pelinat, it is better to caress it with your strokes, tummy massage, warm your hands, let's play with your favorite toys. All this must be done, and then the child will develop normally. You should know that your baby feels you, and do not burden your relationship with a sense of guilt. To do this, just give him a little more warmth and attention. Than it is necessary to be guided, that artificial feeding was successful
- It is necessary to choose the right mixture that fits the needs of the baby. Do not forget about the quality.
- Prepare this product according to the instructions. Perform all actions quickly and efficiently.
- Pediatricians do not advise preparing the mixture in advance.
- Watch how the baby's body tolerates the mixture used.
- It is necessary to adjust the portions used by the baby.
- Choose a pacifier suitable for your child (pay attention to the shape of the nipple, whether there are any difficulties in sucking the nutrient mixture).
- Before you feed your baby, check or carefully washed the bottle and nipples.
- Watch how much the child eats and drinks per day.
- Gradually introduce in the children's diet complementary foods.
Interesting statistics: Than you need to be guided when choosing mixtures for your child:
The child should also be taught to keep the bottle by himself: