Photoaging of the skin

People always wanted to be young and dreamed of keeping their youth as long as possible. Let us recall tales of juvenile apples or the need to bathe in boiling milk ("The Humpbacked Horse"); remember the alchemists who were looking for the recipe for immortality, and with it the recipe for eternal youth; remember the story of Dorian Gray's portrait ... And although psychologists say that youth is a state of mind, the ability to rejoice, sincerity, interest in life, but millions of people, even fully agreeing with scientists, want to preserve the youth of their face and their skin. It would seem that one of the necessary conditions for preserving the youth of the skin is a stay in the fresh air and sun rays, however, as it turned out, not everything is so simple. photoaging of the skin

Skin aging

Skin is the largest organ of the human body (the skin area can reach almost two and a half square meters), and this body is constantly exposed not only to internal, but also to external influences, that is, the skin condition depends not only on the general health of the organism, state, for example, blood circulation, but also from external environmental influences. How can I tell if the skin is getting old? Of course, the first symptoms of aging from the outside are not visible, but sooner or later it becomes clear that the skin has become dry, sharply outlined nasolabial folds erupted, deep wrinkles erupted, pores markedly increased and, among other things, dark age spots appeared. Of course, both medical cosmetology and dermatology make every effort to find the possibility to slow the aging of the skin, but the condition of the skin depends on the state of the whole organism, that is, to keep the skin healthy and young, it is necessary to take care of the condition of all organs and systems. But nevertheless the main reasons of skin aging are two. how does aging face skin First, it is the natural aging of the skin, the so-called chronostenia, which is associated with the age-related hormonal changes in the organism during the menopause; and secondly, the aging of the skin, which is caused by excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays - this type of skin aging is called photoaging.

What is photoaging of the skin?

Photoaging, that is, skin damage by solar (ultraviolet) rays is still different from the natural aging caused by hormonal changes in the body. In dermatology and cosmetology, photoaging also has other names - heliodermatitis (sun dermatitis), or actinic dermatitis, or premature aging of the skin. Undoubtedly, aging skin aging and photoaging can occur simultaneously, that is, the skin can age for two reasons, but the signs and symptoms of these processes differ among themselves. что такое photoaging of the skin Age-related skin aging depends on hormonal processes in the body and on genetic factors, and photoaging is considered a pathogenetic process that does not develop in accordance with genetic presuppositions, and therefore photoaging is considered a special type of skin damage that is associated with excessive exposure to sunlight (excessive insolation). Doctors-dermatologists and cosmeticians all over the world note that although life expectancy is increasing, and people are increasingly choosing for themselves a healthy lifestyle and active types of rest, the trend towards an increase in photo-aging cases continues to increase and is becoming more pronounced. And this despite the fact that there are more and more special products on the market that must protect the skin of different phototypes from the harmful effects of ultraviolet rays and, as a consequence, photo aging.
Attention! Photoaging of the skin is damageI am skin, caused by a constantsolar exposurex (ultraviolet) rayher.

How does photoaging of the skin occur?

Everyone knows perfectly well that sunlight and sunlight are vital for almost all living organisms and that the sun's rays are very, very beneficial to the skin. However, excessive UV exposure to the skin can be harmful, and one of such negative results is undesirable morphological changes (changes in structure) in the epidermis (in the outer layer of the skin), that is, photoaging of the skin. как происходит photoaging of the skin How does this happen? Под воздействием ультрафиолетовых лучей А (UVA) в коже начинается очень активное деление так называемых материнских клеток эпидермиса, которые называются кератиноцитами и в норме принимают участие в ороговении эпидермиса, то есть наружного слоI am skin, и в постоянном обновлении этого слоя. Однако при чрезмерном воздействии ультрафиолета обычная последовательность развития кератиноцитов нарушается, то есть нарушаются процессы ороговения и обновления эпидермиса, что становится и причиной неравномерного ороговения клеток эпидермиса, и причиной утолщения слоя эпидермиса (наружного слоI am skin). Дальше — больше. При изменениях, происходящих в наружном слое кожи, начинаются изменения и в более глубоких слоях, в результате чего начинается так называемый солнечный эластоз — процесс разрушения эластиновых волокон, когда эластиновые волокна уплотняются, нарушается их структура, эластиновые волокна разделяются на фрагменты и закручиваются, а их количество уменьшается.
В результате развития процесса разрушения эластиновых волокон в коже (в дерме) появляются очаги хронического воспаления, а в капиллярах возникают застойные явления, что становится причиной негативных изменений в капиллярном кровотоке и других крайне негативных длI am skin и для всего организма явлений.

What does photoaging look like?

как выглядит photoaging of the skin Undoubtedly, healthy and young skin is distinguished from withering and aging is not very difficult. Dermatologists define six basic signs of a young and healthy skin.
  1. At first, young and healthy skin has a completely uniform coloration, and there is no hyperpigmentation.
  2. Secondly, a distinctive sign of a young and healthy skin is its good tone, that is, young skin is very elastic.
  3. Thirdly, for a young and healthy skin is characterized by a normal texture, that is, the absence of wrinkles or scarring, as well as any other defects.
  4. Fourthly, young and healthy skin is always sufficiently moisturized and never dry.
  5. Fifthly, on young and healthy skin there are no signs of dermatological or any other diseases.
  6. At sixth, young and healthy skin is always resistant to adverse effects of the external environment and to other external and internal factors, as well as to infections.
With aging of the skin, the symptoms become directly opposite. But if the signs appear gradually in the natural aging of the skin, then during photoaging all the signs of aging (a significant and constantly increasing number of wrinkles, thin and dry skin that has seborrheic keratosis) appear very quickly and are much more pronounced.

Причины фотостарениI am skin

Конечно, причина фотостарениI am skin — это пагубное воздействие на кожу ультрафиолетовых лучher. Однако различают острое и хроническое фотостарение. причины фотостарениI am skin Клинические признаки острого ультрафиолетового воздействия — солнечные ожоги и пигментациI am skin. Признаки хронического ультрафиолетового воздействия — появление новообразований, сосудистые изменения, нарушение пигментации, изменения тургора (напряженного состояния), изменения рисунка и эластичности кожи. Хроническое ультрафиолетовое облучение способно привести и приводит к выраженным сосудистым изменениям, в том числе и к кожным кровоизлияниям. На коже появляются локальные участки с нарушенной пигментацией (дисхромией): веснушки, витилиго, мелазмы (хлоазмы), солнечные лентиго (коричневые или светло-коричневые пятна), хронический каплевидный идиопатический гипомеланоз (мелкие белые пятна) и пойкилодермы Сиватта (сетчатая гиперпигментация коричневатого цвета). В медицине такие явления называются sun-damaged skin (skin damaged by the sun), that is, sun-damaged skin - these are many changes that occur with the skin under the influence of ultraviolet irradiation. Interesting! Signs of photoaging were known in dermatology and described more than a hundred years ago under the names "peasants skin" and "skin of seamen". Typical signs of this condition were dry skin, decreased turgor and elasticity of the skin, an underlined skin pattern, active formation of both superficial and deep wrinkles.
Attention! Among other things, photoaging leads to a discoloration of the skin, the appearance of seborrhoeic keratoses and senile acne (comedo senilis).

Signs of photoaging at the level of the structure of tissues

Всем понятно, то любое повреждение кожи, как и любой ткани, влечет за собой количественные и качественные изменения в ее структуре. Что касается эпидермиса (верхнего слоI am skin), то изменения в нем могут быть выражены как атрофией (отмиранием) рогового слоя, так и гиперкератозом (чрезмерным огоровением эпителия). При этом задеваются и межклеточные структуры, а также начинается неравномерное распределение пигментных клеток-меланоцитов. Необходимо отметить, что тяжесть возникающих повреждений кожи очень сильно зависит и прямо пропорциональна силе и длительности ультрафиолетового облучения. Очень важно помнить, что при чрезмерном воздействии ультрафиолетовых лучей в коже начинается разрушение волокон коллагена, а также замещение нормальных волокон коллагена поврежденными структурами. signs of photoaging at the level of the structure of tissues Фотостарение очень отличается от хронологического (возрастного) старениI am skin, поскольку и огрубение, и шелушение кожи характерно для фотостарения, а при естественном возрастном старении ткани и кожа лица опускаются, развиваются старческий себорейный кератоз и желтоватые бляшки в области глаз. Известно, что в период менопаузы процессы естественного обновлениI am skin замедляются, уменьшается достаточный для поддержания здорового состояниI am skin синтез гиалуроновой кислоты и коллагена, однако активизируется пигментообразование, что влечет за собой появление значительного количества пигментных пятен. Кроме того, кожа становится сухой и истончается, а нехватка эстрогенов, которые в период менопаузы вырабатываются в несоизмеримо меньшем количестве, становится причиной расширения поверхностной сосудистой сетки и возникновения эритемы.

How to prevent photoaging?

Can I prevent photoaging of the skin? Fortunately, the prevention of photoaging is quite possible and even necessary. The main task is to protect the skin from UV radiation. как предупредить photoaging of the skin Protection of the skin from excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays can be achieved with the help of exogenous (external) and endogenous (internal) photoprotective agents. Internal (endogenous) photoprotectors, as the name implies, are used inside to provide antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, to minimize the formation of free radicals and to accelerate the regeneration rate of damaged skin cells. Excellent to internal (endogenous) photoprotectors are tocopherol acetate (vitamin E), ascorbic acid (vitamin C), retinol (vitamin A), beta-carotene, selenium, as well as some medications that should be consulted with the doctor in charge. External (exogenous) photoprotectors, which are able to protect the skin from sunlight from the outside, are special sunscreens (oils, sprays, creams, emulsions). To properly choose a reliable means for protection from ultraviolet, you need to know your phototype. The figures, which are indicated on the packaging of the sunscreen, indicate how many times this remedy allows you to extend your stay in direct sunlight. For reference. The first photo is called Scandinavian. This phototype includes people with very thin light skin and with light or red hair. At representatives of the first phototype often there are freckles, and eyes always light. The skin of representatives of the Scandinavian phototype burns almost instantaneously, and an even tan is almost unattainable. For people with the first skin type photo, the use of photoprotective agents in the presence of direct sunlight is mandatory. The second photo is called light-skinned European. This phototype includes people with fair skin and blond hair. The eyes of these people are blue, gray or green. The skin of representatives of a light-skinned European phototype burns very easily and it is very difficult for them to obtain a natural tan. For people with a second skin phototype, the use of photoprotective agents in the presence of direct sunlight is mandatory. The third phototype is called Central European. This phototype includes people whose skin has the color of ivory, hair light chestnut or dark chestnut, and the eyes are often light brown. The skin of representatives of the Central European type tans easily. Sunburn turns out very uniform and beautiful. However, representatives of the third phototype can also be burnt. Appropriate sunscreens are needed. The fourth phototype is called mediterranean. This phototype includes people with olive skin and with black or dark chestnut hair. The eyes of the representatives of the Mediterranean phototype are black or dark brown. Sunburn appears very quickly and without problems and lasts a very long time. The skin of representatives of the fourth phototype practically does not burn. Sunscreens are more needed to prevent photoaging. The fifth phototype is called Asian. This phototype refers to people with skin of brown, yellow or yellow-brown color and with black hair. Eyes are black. Skin in representatives of the fifth phototype does not burn, but tanning on a background of natural pigmentation is invisible. It is not necessary to apply sunscreen. The sixth phototype is called African. This phototype includes people with dark or black skin, with dark eyes and black hair. Skin in representatives of the fifth phototype does not burn, but tanning on a background of natural pigmentation is invisible. Sunscreens can not be used, because people of the sixth phototype have a very strong natural (natural) protection of the skin from ultraviolet radiation. Однако в любом случае лучше не загорать между 11 часами утра и 16 часами пополудни, обязательно наносить средства для загара повторно через определенные промежутки времени и после купания, при первых признаках дискомфорта уходить в кружевную тень, не забывать о необходимости пить достаточное количество воды. К счастью, фотостарение в значительной степени обратимо (этим фотостарение принципиально отличается от хроностарения, которое необратимо), потому что кожа способна восстанавливать свои разрушенные структуры, стремясь возвратиться к первоначальному состоянию. Прежде всего, речь идет о салонных процедурах, таких как пилинги, также важно применения специальной косметики (дневных и ночных кремов) и масок. Также для восстановления упругости и здоровьI am skin очень важное значение имеет правильное питание.

What products will help to preserve youth?

products that preserve youth To keep the skin young (especially the face skin), you need to take care not only about the proper tanning, but also about proper nutrition. It has long been known that some products help the skin withstand negative factors, including photoaging, and stay healthy.
  1. Nuts long been called the product of eternal youth. Nuts contain both vitamin E and coenzyme Q10, which accelerate the regeneration of skin cells and their nutrition. It is known that coenzyme Q10 after 30 years is produced in the body less and less, so it is important to ensure its intake from the outside. In addition, nuts contain a powerful antioxidant vitamin E, which protects skin cells from exposure to various toxins and ultraviolet radiation. To provide the necessary amount of vitamin E and coenzyme Q10 for the body, only 150 grams of nuts a week (cashew, hazelnuts, almonds, walnuts) are enough.
  2. Для поддержаниI am skin в отличном состоянии очень важен антиоксидант бета-каротин, который отвечает в организме за обновление клеток кожи. А большое количество бета-каротина содержится в vegetables and fruits of orange and red color: in carrots, in Bulgarian pepper, in tomatoes (especially in soil), in apricots and peaches and other fruits.
  3. It is known that aging slows the formation of collagen and that for its formation, as well as to strengthen the blood vessels, vitamin C is needed, which is contained in sour fruit and berries taste, among which are black and red currants, strawberries and strawberries, as well as oranges, grapefruits, kiwi.
  4. They remove inflammatory processes and significantly improve blood circulation, including in the skin, omega-3 fatty acids and vitamins A and D, the source of which is considered to be sea ​​fatty fish, for example, salmon, salmon, pink salmon, herring, mackerel, sardines.
  5. To ensure the intake of silicon and B vitamins, which soften the skin and promote its renewal (silicon stimulates the production of collagen, which strengthens the epidermis, B vitamins soften the skin and stimulate its renewal), we need cereals and legumes, which, among other things, improve the work of the gastrointestinal tract and metabolic processes in the body.
  6. Fighting wilting and aging skin will help Garnet, which contains substances that stimulate the regeneration of cells and provide skin elasticity.
  7. Fatty acids that help to repair damaged skin cells and be absorbed by fat-soluble vitamins A, E, D, are contained in olive oil, which, moreover, perfectly fights with dry skin.
  8. The most powerful antioxidants vitamin E and selenium, which do not allow a person to grow prematurely, are contained in the usual cottage cheese, which is usually traditionally considered only as a source of calcium.
  9. One of the best known antioxidants - green tea, which can be used not only for drinking, but also for external use.

Feedback and conclusions

The modern word "photo aging" and the long-standing expression "peasant's skin" express the same concept, only in modern ladies photographic aging comes from an immoderate stay on the beach or in the solarium, and the peasants' skin grew old due to the fact that they were forced all day and work day after day under the scorching rays of the sun ... History knew different times: Ancient Greece bowed before a healthy and tanned body; then in the fashion were languid and pale creatures that year-round were hiding from the sun; after a while fashion to tan came back, but there were also questions - whether sunburn is harmless and why skin gets so spoiled. Modern science provides comprehensive answers and detailed recommendations, but one should always be guided by common sense and remember that "a lot" does not always mean "good" - this is also true for sunburn. При соблюдении нескольких нехитрых правил можно получить великолепный загар, но при этом избежать коварного фотостарениI am skin, а если уж кожа все таки повреждена, то не надо ни отчаиваться, ни лениться, потому что фотостарение, в отличие от хроностарения, к счастью, обратимо. Так что красивого загара и приятных солнечных впечатлений!